# Class 11 RD Sharma Solutions – Chapter 3 Functions – Exercise 3.4

### Question 1. Find f + g, f – g, cf (c ∈ R, c ≠ 0), fg, 1/f and f/g in each of the following:

### (i) f(x) = x^{3} + 1 and g (x) = x + 1

**Solution:**

Given, f(x) = x

^{3}+ 1 and g(x) = x + 1 and f(x): R → R and g(x): R → RWe know, (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) ⇒ (f + g) (x) = x

^{3}+ 1 + x + 1 = x^{3}+ x + 2

So, (f + g)(x) = x^{3}+ x + 2As, (f – g)(x) = f(x) – g(x) ⇒ (f – g)(x) = x

^{3}+ 1 – (x + 1) = x^{3}+ 1 – x – 1 = x^{3}–x

So, (f – g)(x) = x^{3}– xAlso, (cf)(x) = c × f(x) ⇒ (cf)(x) = c(x

^{3}+ 1) = cx^{3}+ c

So, (cf)(x) = cx^{3}+ cSince, (fg)(x) = f(x)g(x) ⇒ (fg)(x) = (x

^{3}+ 1)(x + 1) = (x + 1) (x^{2}– x + 1) (x + 1) = (x + 1)^{2}(x^{2}– x + 1)

So, (fg)(x) = (x + 1)^{2}(x^{2}– x + 1)Now, (1/f)(x) = 1/f (x) ⇒ 1/f (x) = 1/(x

^{3}+ 1)Since 1/f(x) is undefined when f(x) = 0 or when x = – 1,

Hence, 1/f: R – {–1} → R is given by 1/f (x) = 1 / (x^{3}+ 1)Lastly, (f/g)(x) = f(x)/g(x) ⇒ (f/g) (x) = (x

^{3}+ 1)/(x + 1)Since (x

^{3}+ 1)/(x + 1) is undefined when g(x) = 0 or when x = –1.As x

^{3}+ 1 = (x + 1)(x^{2}– x + 1), we have (f/g)(x) = = x^{2}– x + 1

Hence, f/g: R – {–1} → R is given by (f/g)(x) = x^{2}– x + 1

### (ii) f(x) = and g(x) =

**Solution:**

Since real square root is defined only for non-negative numbers, f(x): [1, ∞) → R+ and g(x): [–1, ∞) → R+

We know, (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) = +

Domain of (f + g) = Domain of f ∩ Domain of g = [1, ∞) ∩ [–1, ∞) = [1, ∞)

Hence, f + g: [1, ∞) → R is given by (f + g)(x) =+As, (f – g)(x) = f(x) – g(x) = –

Domain of (f – g) = Domain of f ∩ Domain of g = [1, ∞) ∩ [–1, ∞) = [1, ∞)

Hence, f – g: [1, ∞) → R is given by (f – g)(x) =–Since, (cf)(x) = c × f(x) = c

Domain of (cf) = Domain of f = [1, ∞)

Hence, cf: [1, ∞) → R is given by (cf)(x) = cAlso, (fg)(x) = f(x)g(x) = =

Domain of (fg) = Domain of f ∩ Domain of g = [1, ∞) ∩ [–1, ∞) = [1, ∞)

Hence, fg: [1, ∞) → R is given by (fg)(x) =Now, (1/f) (x) = 1/f(x) =

Domain of (1/f) = Domain of f = [1, ∞)

Since is also undefined when x – 1 = 0 or x = 1.

Hence, 1/f: (1, ∞) → R is given by (1/f)(x) =Lastly, (f/g) (x) = f(x)/g(x) =

Domain of (f/g) = Domain of f ∩ Domain of g = [1, ∞) ∩ [–1, ∞) = [1, ∞)

Hence, f/g: [1, ∞) → R is given by (f/g) (x) =

### Question 2. Let f(x) = 2x + 5 and g(x) = x^{2} + x. Describe and find domain in each:

### (i) f + g

**Solution:**

Given, f(x) = 2x + 5 and g(x) = x

^{2}+ xBoth f(x) and g(x) are defined for all x ∈ R.

So, domain of f = domain of g = R

We know, (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) ⇒ (f + g)(x) = 2x + 5 + x

^{2}+ x= x

^{2}+ 3x + 5Since (f + g)(x) Is defined for all real numbers x.

Hence, (f + g)(x) = x^{2}+ 3x + 5 and the domain of (f + g) is R.

### (ii) f – g

**Solution:**

As (f – g)(x) = f(x) – g(x) ⇒ (f – g)(x)

= 2x + 5 – (x

^{2}+ x)= 2x + 5 – x

^{2}– x= 5 + x – x

^{2}Since (f – g)(x) is defined for all real numbers x.

Hence, (f – g)(x) = 5 + x – x^{2}and the domain of (f – g) is R.

### (iii) fg

**Solution:**

We know, (fg)(x) = f(x)g(x) ⇒ (fg)(x) = (2x + 5)(x

^{2}+ x)= 2x(x

^{2}+ x) + 5(x^{2}+ x)= 2x

^{3}+ 2x^{2}+ 5x^{2}+ 5x= 2x

^{3}+ 7x^{2}+ 5xSince (fg)(x) is defined for all real numbers x.

Hence, (fg)(x) = 2x^{3}+ 7x^{2}+ 5x and the domain of fg is R.

### (iv) f/g

**Solution:**

We know, (f/g) (x) = f(x)/g(x) ⇒ (f/g)(x) =

Clearly (f/g)(x) is defined for all real values of x, except for the case when x

^{2}+ x = 0.x

^{2}+ x = 0 ⇒ x(x + 1) = 0 ⇒ x = 0 or x + 1 = 0 ⇒ x = 0 or –1When x = 0 or –1, (f/g)(x) will be undefined.

Hence, The domain of f/g = R – {–1, 0}

### Question 3. If f(x) be defined on [–2, 2] and is given by and g(x) = f(|x|) + |f(x)|. Find g(x).

**Solution:**

f(|x|) = |x| – 1, where –2 ≤ x ≤ 2

and, |f(x)| =

Thus, g(x) = f(|x|) + |f(x)| =

### Question 4. Let f, g be two real functions defined by f(x) = and g(x) = . Then, describe each of the following functions.

### (i) f + g

**Solution:**

Given, f(x) = and g(x) =

f(x) takes real values only when x + 1 ≥ 0 x ≥ –1, x ∈ [–1, ∞) ⇒ Domain of f = [–1, ∞)

g(x) takes real values only when 9 – x

^{2}≥ 0⇒ x

^{2}≤ 9 ⇒ x^{2}– 3^{2}≤ 0 ⇒ (x + 3)(x – 3) ≤ 0⇒ x ≥ –3 and x ≤ 3

⇒ Domain of g = [–3, 3]

We know, (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) ⇒ (f + g) (x) = +

Domain of f + g = Domain of f ∩ Domain of g = [–1, ∞) ∩ [–3, 3] = [–1, 3]

Hence, f + g: [–1, 3] → R is given by (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) =+

### (ii) g – f

**Solution:**

We know, (g – f)(x) = g(x) – f(x) ⇒ (g – f)(x) =–

Domain of g – f = Domain of g ∩ Domain of f = [–3, 3] ∩ [–1, ∞) = [–1, 3]

Hence, g – f: [–1, 3] → R is given by (g – f) (x) = g(x) – f(x) =–

### (iii) fg

**Solution:**

We know, (fg)(x) = f(x)g(x) ⇒ (fg)(x) =

=

=

=

Domain of fg = Domain of f ∩ Domain of g = [–1, ∞) ∩ [–3, 3] = [–1, 3]

Hence, fg: [–1, 3] → R is given by (fg) (x) = f(x) g(x) ==

### (iv) f/g

**Solution:**

We know, (f/g) (x) = f(x)/g(x) ⇒ (f/g) (x) =

Domain of f/g = Domain of f ∩ Domain of g = [–1, ∞) ∩ [–3, 3] = [–1, 3]

However, (f/g) (x) is defined for all real values of x ∈ [–1, 3], except for the case when 9 – x2 = 0 or x = ± 3

When x = ±3, (f/g) (x) will be undefined as the division result will be indeterminate.

Domain of f/g = [–1, 3] – {–3, 3} = [–1, 3)

Hence, f/g: [–1, 3) → R is given by (f/g) (x) = f(x)/g(x) =

### (v) g/f

**Solution:**

We know, (g/f)(x) = g(x)/f(x) ⇒ (g/f)(x) =

Domain of g/f = Domain of f ∩ Domain of g = [–1, ∞) ∩ [–3, 3] = [–1, 3]

However, (g/f) (x) is defined for all real values of x ∈ [–1, 3], except for the case when x + 1 = 0 or x = –1

When x = –1, (g/f) (x) will be undefined as the division result will be indeterminate.

Domain of g/f = [–1, 3] – {–1} = (–1, 3]

Hence, g/f: (–1, 3] → R is given by (g/f) (x) = g(x)/f(x) =

### (vi) 2f – √5 g

**Solution:**

We know, (2f – √5g)(x) = 2f(x) – √5g(x)

⇒ (2f – √5g)(x) = 2f (x) – √5g(x)

= 2 –

= 2 –

Domain of 2f – √5g = Domain of f ∩ Domain of g = [–1, ∞) ∩ [–3, 3] = [–1, 3]

Hence, 2f – √5g: [–1, 3] → R is given by (2f – √5g) (x) = 2f(x) – √5 g(x) = 2–

### (vii) f^{2 }+ 7f

**Solution:**

We know, (f

^{2}+ 7f)(x) = f^{2}(x) + (7f)(x)⇒ (f

^{2}+ 7f) (x) = f(x).f(x) + 7f(x)= + 7

= x + 1 + 7

Domain of f

^{2}+ 7f is same as domain of f = [–1, ∞)

Hence, f^{2}+ 7f: [–1, ∞) → R is given by (f2 + 7f) (x) = f(x) f(x) + 7f(x) = x + 1 + 7

### (viii) 5/g

**Solution:**

We know, (5/g)(x) = 5/g(x) ⇒ (5/g)(x) =

Domain of 5/g = Domain of g = [–3, 3]

However, (5/g)(x) is defined for all real values of x ∈ [–3, 3], except for the case when 9 – x

^{2}= 0 or x = ± 3When x = ±3, (5/g)(x) will be undefined.

Thus, Domain of 5/g = [–3, 3] – {–3, 3} = (–3, 3)

Hence, 5/g: (–3, 3) → R is given by (5/g)(x) = 5/g(x) =

### Question 5. If f(x) = log_{e} (1 – x) and g(x) = [x], then determine each of the following functions:

### (i) f + g

**Solution:**

f(x) = log

_{e}(1 – x) and g(x) = [x]We know, f(x) takes real values only when 1 – x > 0 or when 1 > x

x < 1, ∴ x ∈ (–∞, 1) ⇒ Domain of f = (–∞, 1)

g(x) is defined for all real numbers x. ⇒ Domain of g = [x], x ∈ R = R

Thus, (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) = log

_{e}(1 – x) + [x]Domain of f + g = Domain of f ∩ Domain of g = (–∞, 1) ∩ R = (–∞, 1)

Hence, f + g: (–∞, 1) → R is given by (f + g) (x) = log_{e}(1 – x) + [x]

### (ii) fg

**Solution:**

We know, (fg)(x) = f(x)g(x) ⇒ (fg)(x) = log

_{e}(1 – x) × [x] = [x]log_{e}(1 – x)Domain of fg = Domain of f ∩ Domain of g = (–∞, 1) ∩ R = (–∞, 1)

Hence, fg: (–∞, 1) → R is given by (fg) (x) = [x] log_{e}(1 – x).

### (iii) f/g

**Solution:**

We know, (f/g)(x) = f(x)/g(x) ⇒ (f/g)(x) =

Domain of f/g = Domain of f ∩ Domain of g = (–∞, 1) ∩ R = (–∞, 1)

However, (f/g) (x) is defined for all real values of x ∈ (–∞, 1), except when [x] = 0.

We have, [x] = 0 when 0 ≤ x < 1 or x ∈ [0, 1)

When 0 ≤ x < 1, (f/g) (x) will be undefined. Domain of f/g = (–∞, 1) – [0, 1) = (–∞, 0)

Hence, f/g: (–∞, 0) → R is given by (f/g)(x) =

### (iv) g/f

**Solution:**

We know, (g/f)(x) = g(x)/f(x) ⇒ (g/f)(x) =

However, (g/f)(x) is defined for all real values of x ∈ (–∞, 1), except for the case when loge (1 – x) = 0.

⇒ loge (1 – x) = 0 ⇒ 1 – x = 1

or x = 0

When x = 0, (g/f) (x) will be undefined as the division result will be indeterminate.

Domain of g/f = (–∞, 1) – {0} = (–∞, 0) ∪ (0, 1)

Hence, g/f: (–∞, 0) ∪ (0, 1) → R is given by (g/f)(x) =

### (v) (f + g)(–1)

**Solution:**

(f + g) (x) = log

_{e}(1 – x) + [x], x ∈ (–∞, 1)Substituting x = –1 in the above equation, we get

(f + g)(–1) = log

_{e}(1 – (–1)) + [–1]= log

_{e}(1 + 1) + (–1)= log

_{e}2 – 1

Hence, (f + g)(–1) = log_{e}2 – 1

### (vi) (fg)(0)

**Solution:**

We have, (fg)(x) = [x]log

_{e}(1 – x), x ∈ (–∞, 1)Substituting x = 0 in the above equation, we get

(fg)(0) = [0]log

_{e}(1 – 0)= 0 × log

_{e}1 = 0

Hence, (fg) (0) = 0

### (vii) (f/g)(1/2)

**Solution:**

(f/g)(x) = , x ∈ (–∞, 0)

However, 1/2 is not in the domain of f/g.

Hence, (f/g)(1/2) does not exist.

### (viii) (g/f)(1/2)

**Solution:**

We have, (g/f)(x) =, x ∈ (–∞, 0) ∪ (0, ∞)

Substituting x=1/2 in the above equation, we get

(g/f)(1/2) =

=

=

= = 0

Hence, (g/f)(1/2) = 0

### Question 6. If f, g, h are real functions defined by f(x) = , g(x) = 1/x and h(x) = 2x^{2} – 3, then find the values of (2f + g – h)(1) and (2f + g – h)(0).

**Solution:**

Since, f(x) is defined for x + 1 ≥ 0 ⇒ x ≥ – 1

⇒ x ∈ [– 1, ∞] = Domain of f(x)

Now, (2f+g –h)(x) = 2f(x) + g(x) – h(x)

= 2 + 1/x – (2x

^{2}– 3)= 2 + 1/1 – 2(1)

^{2}+ 3

(2f + g – h)(x) =2√2 + 2

Since (2f+g –h)(0) does not lie in the domain x ∈ [– 1, ∞] – 0, it does not exist.

### Question 7. The function f(x) is defined by: f(x) = . Draw the graph of f(x).

**Solution:**

The graph of f(x) for x < 0 lies to the left of origin.

The graph of f(x) for x > 0 lies to the right of origin.

The graph of f(x) for x = 0 is represented by the point (0,1).

### Question 8. Let f, g: R ⇒ R be defined respectively as f(x) = x + 1 and g(x) = 2x – 3. Find f + g, f – g and f/g.

**Solution:**

We know, (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) = (x + 1 + 2x – 3) = 3x – 2.

Now, (f – g)(x) = f(x) – g(x) = (x + 1) – (2x – 3) = 4 – x.

f/g(x) = f(x)/g(x) =

### Question 9. Let f and g be defined respectively as f(x) = √x and g(x) = x. Find f + g, f – g, fg, and f/g.

**Solution:**

(f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) = √x + x

(f – g)(x) = f(x) – g(x) = √x – x

(fg)(x) = f(x)g(x) = √x.x = x

^{1/2 + 1}= x^{3/2}f/g(x) = f(x)/g(x) = √x/x = 1/√x

### Question 10. Let f(x) = x^{2} and g(x) = 2x + 1 be two real functions. Find f + g, f – g, fg, and f/g.

**Solution:**

(f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) = x

^{2}+ 2x + 1 = (x + 1)^{2}(f – g)(x) = f(x) – g(x) = x

^{2}– 2x – 1(fg)(x) = f(x)g(x) = x

^{2}(2x + 1) = 2x^{3 }+ x^{2}f/g(x) = f(x)/g(x) =

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