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Chemical Formula of Water – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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Hydrogen (H) has unique kind properties that are not like some other component on our planet, close to 66% of our Universe’s mass is made out of this unique component. It is both electropositive as well as electronegative, as it structures hydrogen particles (H+)as well as hydride particles (H). Hydrogen compounds are the main oxidants for some synthetic substances in the air and are associated with the patterns of numerous substance families. Hydrogen is utilized to make ammonia (NH3).

Oxygen (O) is the chemical element with atomic number 8 in the periodic table. It is a highly reactive nonmetal and an oxidant that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. 

Water is the most essential compound in our lives and it is required for the survival of life on our planet. Water contains two Hydrogen (H) atoms and one Oxygen (O) atom. There is a covalent bond between Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O) atoms. It is called the universal solvent. It is very useful in our lives without which we cannot live.

Chemical formula of Water

The chemical formula of water is H2O. Its chemical name is Dihydrogen Monoxide It is prepared by 

2H2 + O2  ⇒  2H2O



Water has one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. It has a covalent bond holding its atoms. It has an angular Lattice Structure. Water has a bent shape or V shape.

Physical Properties of Water

Some of the physical properties of water are:

  • It is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid.
  • The molecular weight of water is 18.01528 g/mol.
  • The density of water is 997 kg/m3 at 25°C.
  • The Boiling point of 100° C.
  • The Melting Point of Water is 0° C.
  • It can dissolve almost any substance, that is why it is known as Universal Solvent.

Chemical Properties of Water

  • Water is neither acidic nor basic in nature, so it acts as both acid and base. So it has the ability to accept and donate protons. When Water is reacted with Hydrochloric acid (HCl), we get Hydronium (H3O+) and Chlorine (Cl).

H2O (l) + HCl (aq) ⇌ H3O+ + Cl.

  • Water can react strongly with ions of salts. When Water is reacted with Silicon Tetrachloride  (SiCl4), we get Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) and Hydrochloric acid (HCl).

SiCl4 + 2H2O → SiO2 + 4HCl.

  • Water can also react with highly electropositive metals such as Sodium. We get Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) and Hydrogen (H2).

H2O + Na → 2NaOH + H2.

Uses of water

Water has a variety of uses some of which are listed below:

  • It can be used for direct and indirect purposes.
  • It is used for drinking, cooking, washing, and bathing.
  • It is used in processing wood to make paper.
  • It is used in the generation of electricity.
  • It is used for agriculture and irrigation purposes.
  • It is used in the production of steel for automobiles.
  • It has a strong hydrating tendency.
  • It is used as a laboratory reagent.

FAQs based on water and its properties

Question 1: Is Water polar or non-polar?


Water is polar in nature, because in water there is electronegativity difference between H atom and O atom. It has a bent shape. It is also non – conductor to electricity.

Question 2: Does Water has a covalent bond or an ionic bond?


Water has Covalent bond. Water has covalent bond between hydrogen and oxygen which forms V shape. It is non-linear molecule.

Question 3: What happens when water reacts with ammonia?


When water reacts with ammonia, we get Ammonium ion (NH+4) and Hydroxide ion (OH)

H2O (l) + NH3 (aq) ⇌ NH+4  + OH

Question 4: What happens when Water reacts with Carbon dioxide?


When water reacts with Carbon dioxide (CO2), we get Carbonic acid (H2CO3).

H2O + CO2  ⟶   H2CO3

Question 5: Write two examples of when water reacts with metals?


When water reacts with Metals, we get metal oxide  and hydrogen gas.

Example 1: When Magnesium (Mg) reacts with Water, we get Magnesium Oxide (MgO) and Hydrogen gas (H2).

Mg + H2O   ⇒ MgO + H2

Example 2: When Potassium (K) reacts with Water, we get Potassium Oxide (KOH) and Hydrogen gas (H2).

2K + 2H2O ⇒   2KOH + H2

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Last Updated : 02 Aug, 2022
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