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Check if a string is a scrambled form of another string
• Difficulty Level : Expert
• Last Updated : 02 Dec, 2020

Given two strings S1 and S2 of equal length, the task is to determine if S2 is a scrambled form of S1.
Scrambled string:
Given string str, we can represent it as a binary tree by partitioning it to two non-empty substrings recursively.
Note: Srambled string is not same as an Anagram
Below is one possible representation of str = “coder”:

```    coder
/    \
co    der
/ \    /  \
c   o  d   er
/ \
e   r```

To scramble the string, we may choose any non-leaf node and swap its two children.
Suppose, we choose the node “co” and swap its two children, it produces a scrambled string “ocder”.

```    ocder
/    \
oc    der
/ \    /  \
o   c  d   er
/ \
e   r```

Thus, “ocder” is a scrambled string of “coder”.
Similarly, if we continue to swap the children of nodes “der” and “er”, it produces a scrambled string “ocred”.

```    ocred
/    \
oc    red
/ \    /  \
o   c  re  d
/ \
r   e```

Thus, “ocred” is a scrambled string of “coder”.
Examples:

Input: S1=”coder”, S2=”ocder”
Output: Yes
Explanation:
“ocder” is a scrambled form of “coder”
Input: S1=”abcde”, S2=”caebd”
Output: No
Explanation:
“caebd” is not a scrambled form of “abcde”

Approach
In order to solve this problem, we are using Divide and Conquer approach.
Given two strings of equal length (say n+1), S1[0…n] and S2[0…n]. If S2 is a scrambled form of S1, then there must exist an index i such that at least one of the following conditions is true:

• S2[0…i] is a scrambled string of S1[0…i] and S2[i+1…n] is a scrambled string of S1[i+1…n].
• S2[0…i] is a scrambled string of S1[n-i…n] and S2[i+1…n] is a scrambled string of S1[0…n-i-1].

Note: An optimization step to consider here is to check beforehand if the two strings are anagrams of each other. If not, it indicates that the strings contain different characters and can’t be a scrambled form of each other.
Below is the implementation of the above approach:

## C++

 `// C++ Program to check if a``// given string is a scrambled``// form of another string` `#include ``using` `namespace` `std;` `bool` `isScramble(string S1, string S2)``{``    ``// Strings of non-equal length``    ``// cant' be scramble strings``    ``if` `(S1.length() != S2.length()) {``        ``return` `false``;``    ``}` `    ``int` `n = S1.length();` `    ``// Empty strings are scramble strings``    ``if` `(n == 0) {``        ``return` `true``;``    ``}` `    ``// Equal strings are scramble strings``    ``if` `(S1 == S2) {``        ``return` `true``;``    ``}` `    ``// Check for the condition of anagram``    ``string copy_S1 = S1, copy_S2 = S2;` `    ``sort(copy_S1.begin(), copy_S1.end());``    ``sort(copy_S2.begin(), copy_S2.end());` `    ``if` `(copy_S1 != copy_S2) {``        ``return` `false``;``    ``}` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 1; i < n; i++) {` `        ``// Check if S2[0...i] is a scrambled``        ``// string of S1[0...i] and if S2[i+1...n]``        ``// is a scrambled string of S1[i+1...n]``        ``if` `(isScramble(S1.substr(0, i), S2.substr(0, i))``            ``&& isScramble(S1.substr(i, n - i),``                          ``S2.substr(i, n - i))) {``            ``return` `true``;``        ``}` `        ``// Check if S2[0...i] is a scrambled``        ``// string of S1[n-i...n] and S2[i+1...n]``        ``// is a scramble string of S1[0...n-i-1]``        ``if` `(isScramble(S1.substr(0, i),``                       ``S2.substr(n - i, i))``            ``&& isScramble(S1.substr(i, n - i),``                          ``S2.substr(0, n - i))) {``            ``return` `true``;``        ``}``    ``}` `    ``// If none of the above``    ``// conditions are satisfied``    ``return` `false``;``}` `// Driver Code``int` `main()``{``    ``string S1 = ``"coder"``;``    ``string S2 = ``"ocred"``;` `    ``if` `(isScramble(S1, S2)) {``        ``cout << ``"Yes"``;``    ``}``    ``else` `{``        ``cout << ``"No"``;``    ``}` `    ``return` `0;``}`

## Java

 `// Java program to check if a``// given string is a scrambled``// form of another string``import` `java.util.*;` `class` `GFG{``    ` `static` `boolean` `isScramble(String S1,``                          ``String S2)``{``    ` `    ``// Strings of non-equal length``    ``// cant' be scramble strings``    ``if` `(S1.length() != S2.length())``    ``{``        ``return` `false``;``    ``}``    ` `    ``int` `n = S1.length();` `    ``// Empty strings are scramble strings``    ``if` `(n == ``0``)``    ``{``        ``return` `true``;``    ``}``    ` `    ``// Equal strings are scramble strings``    ``if` `(S1.equals(S2))``    ``{``        ``return` `true``;``    ``}``    ` `    ``// Converting string to``    ``// character array``    ``char``[] tempArray1 = S1.toCharArray();``    ``char``[] tempArray2 = S2.toCharArray();``    ` `    ``// Checking condition for Anagram``    ``Arrays.sort(tempArray1);``    ``Arrays.sort(tempArray2);``    ` `    ``String copy_S1 = ``new` `String(tempArray1);``    ``String copy_S2 = ``new` `String(tempArray2);``    ` `    ``if` `(!copy_S1.equals(copy_S2))``    ``{``        ``return` `false``;``    ``}``        ` `    ``for``(``int` `i = ``1``; i < n; i++)``    ``{``        ` `        ``// Check if S2[0...i] is a scrambled``        ``// string of S1[0...i] and if S2[i+1...n]``        ``// is a scrambled string of S1[i+1...n]``        ``if` `(isScramble(S1.substring(``0``, i),``                       ``S2.substring(``0``, i)) &&``            ``isScramble(S1.substring(i, n),``                       ``S2.substring(i, n)))``        ``{``            ``return` `true``;``        ``}` `        ``// Check if S2[0...i] is a scrambled``        ``// string of S1[n-i...n] and S2[i+1...n]``        ``// is a scramble string of S1[0...n-i-1]``        ``if` `(isScramble(S1.substring(n - i, n),``                       ``S2.substring(``0``, i)) &&``            ``isScramble(S1.substring(``0``, n - i),``                       ``S2.substring(i, n)))``        ``{``            ``return` `true``;``        ``}``    ``}``    ` `    ``// If none of the above``    ``// conditions are satisfied``    ``return` `false``;``}` `// Driver Code``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``{``    ``String S1 = ``"coder"``;``    ``String S2 = ``"ocred"``;``    ` `    ``if` `(isScramble(S1, S2))``    ``{``        ``System.out.println(``"Yes"``);``    ``}``    ``else``    ``{``        ``System.out.println(``"No"``);``    ``}``}``}` `// This code is contributed by dadi madhav`

## Python3

 `# Python3 program to check if a``# given string is a scrambled``# form of another string``def` `isScramble(S1: ``str``, S2: ``str``):``    ` `    ``# Strings of non-equal length``    ``# cant' be scramble strings``    ``if` `len``(S1) !``=` `len``(S2):``        ``return` `False` `    ``n ``=` `len``(S1)` `    ``# Empty strings are scramble strings``    ``if` `not` `n:``        ``return` `True` `    ``# Equal strings are scramble strings``    ``if` `S1 ``=``=` `S2:``        ``return` `True` `    ``# Check for the condition of anagram``    ``if` `sorted``(S1) !``=` `sorted``(S2):``        ``return` `False` `    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``1``, n):``        ` `        ``# Check if S2[0...i] is a scrambled``        ``# string of S1[0...i] and if S2[i+1...n]``        ``# is a scrambled string of S1[i+1...n]``        ``if` `(isScramble(S1[:i], S2[:i]) ``and``            ``isScramble(S1[i:], S2[i:])):``            ``return` `True` `        ``# Check if S2[0...i] is a scrambled``        ``# string of S1[n-i...n] and S2[i+1...n]``        ``# is a scramble string of S1[0...n-i-1]``        ``if` `(isScramble(S1[``-``i:], S2[:i]) ``and``            ``isScramble(S1[:``-``i], S2[i:])):``            ``return` `True` `    ``# If none of the above``    ``# conditions are satisfied``    ``return` `False` `# Driver Code``if` `__name__ ``=``=` `"__main__"``:``    ` `    ``S1 ``=` `"coder"``    ``S2 ``=` `"ocred"``    ` `    ``if` `(isScramble(S1, S2)):``        ``print``(``"Yes"``)``    ``else``:``        ``print``(``"No"``)` `# This code is contributed by sgshah2`

## C#

 `// C# program to check if a``// given string is a scrambled``// form of another string``using` `System;``using` `System.Collections.Generic;``class` `GFG {``    ` `    ``static` `bool` `isScramble(``string` `S1, ``string` `S2)``    ``{``          ` `        ``// Strings of non-equal length``        ``// cant' be scramble strings``        ``if` `(S1.Length != S2.Length) ``        ``{``            ``return` `false``;``        ``}``          ` `        ``int` `n = S1.Length;``      ` `        ``// Empty strings are scramble strings``        ``if` `(n == 0) ``        ``{``            ``return` `true``;``        ``}``          ` `        ``// Equal strings are scramble strings``        ``if` `(S1.Equals(S2))``        ``{``            ``return` `true``;``        ``}``          ` `        ``// Converting string to ``        ``// character array``        ``char``[] tempArray1 = S1.ToCharArray();``        ``char``[] tempArray2 = S2.ToCharArray();``          ` `        ``// Checking condition for Anagram``        ``Array.Sort(tempArray1);``        ``Array.Sort(tempArray2);``          ` `        ``string` `copy_S1 = ``new` `string``(tempArray1);``        ``string` `copy_S2 = ``new` `string``(tempArray2);``          ` `        ``if` `(!copy_S1.Equals(copy_S2)) ``        ``{``            ``return` `false``;``        ``}``              ` `        ``for``(``int` `i = 1; i < n; i++)``        ``{``              ` `            ``// Check if S2[0...i] is a scrambled``            ``// string of S1[0...i] and if S2[i+1...n]``            ``// is a scrambled string of S1[i+1...n]``            ``if` `(isScramble(S1.Substring(0, i), ``                           ``S2.Substring(0, i)) && ``                ``isScramble(S1.Substring(i, n - i),``                           ``S2.Substring(i, n - i)))``            ``{``                ``return` `true``;``            ``}``      ` `            ``// Check if S2[0...i] is a scrambled``            ``// string of S1[n-i...n] and S2[i+1...n]``            ``// is a scramble string of S1[0...n-i-1]``            ``if` `(isScramble(S1.Substring(0, i),``                           ``S2.Substring(n - i, i)) && ``                ``isScramble(S1.Substring(i, n - i),``                           ``S2.Substring(0, n - i))) ``            ``{``                ``return` `true``;``            ``}``        ``}``          ` `        ``// If none of the above``        ``// conditions are satisfied``        ``return` `false``;``    ``}``  ` `  ``// Driver code``  ``static` `void` `Main()``  ``{``        ``string` `S1 = ``"coder"``;``        ``string` `S2 = ``"ocred"``;``          ` `        ``if` `(isScramble(S1, S2)) ``        ``{``            ``Console.WriteLine(``"Yes"``);``        ``}``        ``else``        ``{``            ``Console.WriteLine(``"No"``);``        ``}``  ``}``}` `// This code is contributed by divyeshrabadiya07`
Output:
`Yes`

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