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Check if a directed graph is connected or not

  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 24 Sep, 2021

Given a directed graph. The task is to check if the given graph is connected or not.
Examples: 
 

Input: 
 

Output: Yes
Input: 
 

Output: No 
 

 

Approach: 
 

  1. Take two bool arrays vis1 and vis2 of size N (number of nodes of a graph) and keep false in all indexes.
  2. Start at a random vertex v of the graph G, and run a DFS(G, v).
  3. Make all visited vertices v as vis1[v] = true.
  4. Now reverse the direction of all the edges.
  5. Start DFS at the vertex which was chosen at step 2.
  6. Make all visited vertices v as vis2[v] = true.
  7. If any vertex v has vis1[v] = false and vis2[v] = false then the graph is not connected.

Below is the implementation of the above approach: 
 

C++




// C++ implementation of the approach
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
#define N 100000
 
// To keep correct and reverse direction
vector<int> gr1[N], gr2[N];
 
bool vis1[N], vis2[N];
 
// Function to add edges
void Add_edge(int u, int v)
{
    gr1[u].push_back(v);
    gr2[v].push_back(u);
}
 
// DFS function
void dfs1(int x)
{
    vis1[x] = true;
 
    for (auto i : gr1[x])
        if (!vis1[i])
            dfs1(i);
}
 
// DFS function
void dfs2(int x)
{
    vis2[x] = true;
 
    for (auto i : gr2[x])
        if (!vis2[i])
            dfs2(i);
}
 
bool Is_Connected(int n)
{
    // Call for correct direction
    memset(vis1, false, sizeof vis1);
    dfs1(1);
 
    // Call for reverse direction
    memset(vis2, false, sizeof vis2);
    dfs2(1);
 
    for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
 
        // If any vertex it not visited in any direction
        // Then graph is not connected
        if (!vis1[i] and !vis2[i])
            return false;
    }
 
    // If graph is connected
    return true;
}
 
// Driver code
int main()
{
    int n = 4;
 
    // Add edges
    Add_edge(1, 2);
    Add_edge(1, 3);
    Add_edge(2, 3);
    Add_edge(3, 4);
 
    // Function call
    if (Is_Connected(n))
        cout << "Yes";
    else
        cout << "No";
 
    return 0;
}

Java




// Java implementation of the approach
import java.util.*;
 
class GFG
{
    static int N = 100000;
 
    // To keep correct and reverse direction
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    static Vector<Integer>[] gr1 = new Vector[N];
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    static Vector<Integer>[] gr2 = new Vector[N];
 
    static boolean[] vis1 = new boolean[N];
    static boolean[] vis2 = new boolean[N];
 
    static {
        for (int i = 0; i < N; i++)
        {
            gr1[i] = new Vector<>();
            gr2[i] = new Vector<>();
        }
    }
 
    // Function to add edges
    static void Add_edge(int u, int v)
    {
        gr1[u].add(v);
        gr2[v].add(u);
    }
 
    // DFS function
    static void dfs1(int x)
    {
        vis1[x] = true;
        for (int i : gr1[x])
            if (!vis1[i])
                dfs1(i);
    }
 
    // DFS function
    static void dfs2(int x)
    {
        vis2[x] = true;
        for (int i : gr2[x])
            if (!vis2[i])
                dfs2(i);
    }
 
    static boolean Is_connected(int n)
    {
 
        // Call for correct direction
        Arrays.fill(vis1, false);
        dfs1(1);
 
        // Call for reverse direction
        Arrays.fill(vis2, false);
        dfs2(1);
 
        for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++)
        {
 
            // If any vertex it not visited in any direction
            // Then graph is not connected
            if (!vis1[i] && !vis2[i])
                return false;
        }
 
        // If graph is connected
        return true;
    }
 
    // Driver Code
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        int n = 4;
 
        // Add edges
        Add_edge(1, 2);
        Add_edge(1, 3);
        Add_edge(2, 3);
        Add_edge(3, 4);
 
        // Function call
        if (Is_connected(n))
            System.out.println("Yes");
        else
            System.out.println("No");
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by
// sanjeev2552

Python3




# Python3 implementation of the approach
N = 100000
 
# To keep correct and reverse direction
gr1 = {}; gr2 = {};
 
vis1 = [0] * N; vis2 = [0] * N;
 
# Function to add edges
def Add_edge(u, v) :
 
    if u not in gr1 :
        gr1[u] = [];
         
    if v not in gr2 :
        gr2[v] = [];
         
    gr1[u].append(v);
    gr2[v].append(u);
 
# DFS function
def dfs1(x) :
    vis1[x] = True;
    if x not in gr1 :
        gr1[x] = {};
         
    for i in gr1[x] :
        if (not vis1[i]) :
            dfs1(i)
 
# DFS function
def dfs2(x) :
 
    vis2[x] = True;
 
    if x not in gr2 :
        gr2[x] = {};
         
    for i in gr2[x] :
        if (not vis2[i]) :
            dfs2(i);
 
def Is_Connected(n) :
 
    global vis1;
    global vis2;
     
    # Call for correct direction
    vis1 = [False] * len(vis1);
    dfs1(1);
     
    # Call for reverse direction
    vis2 = [False] * len(vis2);
    dfs2(1);
     
    for i in range(1, n + 1) :
         
        # If any vertex it not visited in any direction
        # Then graph is not connected
        if (not vis1[i] and not vis2[i]) :
            return False;
             
    # If graph is connected
    return True;
 
# Driver code
if __name__ == "__main__" :
 
    n = 4;
 
    # Add edges
    Add_edge(1, 2);
    Add_edge(1, 3);
    Add_edge(2, 3);
    Add_edge(3, 4);
 
    # Function call
    if (Is_Connected(n)) :
        print("Yes");
    else :
        print("No");
 
# This code is contributed by AnkitRai01

C#




// C# implementation of the approach
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
 
class GFG
{
    static int N = 100000;
 
    // To keep correct and reverse direction
    static List<int>[] gr1 = new List<int>[N];
 
    static List<int>[] gr2 = new List<int>[N];
 
    static bool[] vis1 = new bool[N];
    static bool[] vis2 = new bool[N];
 
    // Function to add edges
    static void Add_edge(int u, int v)
    {
        gr1[u].Add(v);
        gr2[v].Add(u);
    }
 
    // DFS function
    static void dfs1(int x)
    {
        vis1[x] = true;
        foreach (int i in gr1[x])
            if (!vis1[i])
                dfs1(i);
    }
 
    // DFS function
    static void dfs2(int x)
    {
        vis2[x] = true;
        foreach (int i in gr2[x])
            if (!vis2[i])
                dfs2(i);
    }
 
    static bool Is_connected(int n)
    {
 
        // Call for correct direction
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
            vis1[i] = false;
        dfs1(1);
 
        // Call for reverse direction
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
            vis2[i] = false;
        dfs2(1);
 
        for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++)
        {
 
            // If any vertex it not visited in any direction
            // Then graph is not connected
            if (!vis1[i] && !vis2[i])
                return false;
        }
 
        // If graph is connected
        return true;
    }
 
    // Driver Code
    public static void Main(String[] args)
    {
        int n = 4;
        for (int i = 0; i < N; i++)
        {
            gr1[i] = new List<int>();
            gr2[i] = new List<int>();
        }
         
        // Add edges
        Add_edge(1, 2);
        Add_edge(1, 3);
        Add_edge(2, 3);
        Add_edge(3, 4);
 
        // Function call
        if (Is_connected(n))
            Console.WriteLine("Yes");
        else
            Console.WriteLine("No");
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by PrinciRaj1992

Javascript




<script>
    // Javascript implementation of the approach
     
    let N = 100000;
   
    // To keep correct and reverse direction
    let gr1 = [];
    let gr2 = [];
    for(let i = 0; i < N; i++)
    {
        gr1.push([]);
        gr2.push([]);
    }
   
    let vis1 = new Array(N);
    let vis2 = new Array(N);
    vis1.fill(false);
    vis2.fill(false);
   
    // Function to add edges
    function Add_edge(u, v)
    {
        gr1[u].push(v);
        gr2[v].push(u);
    }
   
    // DFS function
    function dfs1(x)
    {
        vis1[x] = true;
        for(let i = 0; i < gr1[x].length; i++)
        {
            if (!vis1[gr1[x][i]])
            {
                dfs1(gr1[x][i]);
            }
        }
    }
   
    // DFS function
    function dfs2(x)
    {
        vis2[x] = true;
        for(let i = 0; i < gr2[x].length; i++)
        {
            if (!vis2[gr2[x][i]])
            {
                dfs2(gr2[x][i]);
            }
        }
    }
   
    function Is_connected(n)
    {
   
        // Call for correct direction
        for (let i = 0; i < n; i++)
            vis1[i] = false;
        dfs1(1);
   
        // Call for reverse direction
        for (let i = 0; i < n; i++)
            vis2[i] = false;
        dfs2(1);
   
        for (let i = 1; i <= n; i++)
        {
   
            // If any vertex it not visited in any direction
            // Then graph is not connected
            if (!vis1[i] && !vis2[i])
                return false;
        }
   
        // If graph is connected
        return true;
    }
     
    let n = 4;
    for (let i = 0; i < N; i++)
    {
      gr1[i] = [];
      gr2[i] = [];
    }
 
    // Add edges
    Add_edge(1, 2);
    Add_edge(1, 3);
    Add_edge(2, 3);
    Add_edge(3, 4);
 
    // Function call
    if (Is_connected(n))
      document.write("Yes");
    else
      document.write("No");
     
    // This code is contributed by divyesh072019.
</script>
Output: 
Yes

 


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