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# Changing row and column values of a Matrix in R Language – sweep() function

• Last Updated : 26 May, 2020

sweep() function in R Language is used to apply the operation “+ or -” to the row or column in data matrix.
It is used to sweep the values from the data-framework.

Syntax:
sweep(x, MARGIN, STATS, FUN)

Parameters:
x: Typically a matrix.
MARGIN: MARGIN = 1 means row; MARGIN = 2 means column.
STATS: the value that should be added or subtracted
FUN: The operation that has to be done (e.g. + or -)

Example 1: Sweep Matrix

 `# R program to illustrate``# sweep matrix`` ` `# Create example matrix``data <``-` `matrix(``0``, nrow ``=` `6``, ncol ``=` `4``)           `` ` `# Apply sweep in R``data_ex1 <``-` `sweep(x ``=` `data, MARGIN ``=` `1``, STATS ``=` `5``, FUN ``=` `"+"``)  `` ` `# Print example 1``print``(data_ex1)  ``                              `

Output:

```     [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4]
[1,]    5    5    5    5
[2,]    5    5    5    5
[3,]    5    5    5    5
[4,]    5    5    5    5
[5,]    5    5    5    5
[6,]    5    5    5    5
```

Here in the above code, the value of the matrix was 0, which was then sweeped by the `sweep()` function and the new value of the matrix became 5.

Example 2: Using sweep() with stats

 `# R program to illustrate``# sweep funtion with stats`` ` `# Create example matrix``data <``-` `matrix(``0``, nrow ``=` `6``, ncol ``=` `4``)           `` ` `# Sweep with Complex STATS``data_ex2 <``-` `sweep(x ``=` `data, MARGIN ``=` `1``,                       ``                  ``STATS ``=` `c(``1``, ``2``, ``3``, ``4``, ``5``, ``6``), FUN ``=` `"+"``)`` ` `# Print example 2 ``print``(data_ex2)                                                       `

Output:

```     [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4]
[1,]    1    1    1    1
[2,]    2    2    2    2
[3,]    3    3    3    3
[4,]    4    4    4    4
[5,]    5    5    5    5
[6,]    6    6    6    6
```

Here in the above example, we have used the `sweep()` function along with the stats.

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