# Changing row and column values of a Matrix in R Language – sweep() function

**sweep()** function in R Language is used to apply the operation “+ or -” to the row or column in data matrix.

It is used to sweep the values from the data-framework.

Syntax:

sweep(x, MARGIN, STATS, FUN)

Parameters:x:Typically a matrix.MARGIN:MARGIN = 1 means row; MARGIN = 2 means column.STATS:the value that should be added or subtractedFUN:The operation that has to be done (e.g. + or -)

**Example 1: Sweep Matrix**

`# R program to illustrate` `# sweep matrix` ` ` `# Create example matrix` `data <` `-` `matrix(` `0` `, nrow ` `=` `6` `, ncol ` `=` `4` `) ` ` ` `# Apply sweep in R` `data_ex1 <` `-` `sweep(x ` `=` `data, MARGIN ` `=` `1` `, STATS ` `=` `5` `, FUN ` `=` `"+"` `) ` ` ` `# Print example 1` `print` `(data_ex1) ` ` ` |

**Output:**

[,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [1,] 5 5 5 5 [2,] 5 5 5 5 [3,] 5 5 5 5 [4,] 5 5 5 5 [5,] 5 5 5 5 [6,] 5 5 5 5

Here in the above code, the value of the matrix was 0, which was then sweeped by the `sweep()`

function and the new value of the matrix became 5.

**Example 2: Using sweep() with stats**

`# R program to illustrate` `# sweep funtion with stats` ` ` `# Create example matrix` `data <` `-` `matrix(` `0` `, nrow ` `=` `6` `, ncol ` `=` `4` `) ` ` ` `# Sweep with Complex STATS` `data_ex2 <` `-` `sweep(x ` `=` `data, MARGIN ` `=` `1` `, ` ` ` `STATS ` `=` `c(` `1` `, ` `2` `, ` `3` `, ` `4` `, ` `5` `, ` `6` `), FUN ` `=` `"+"` `)` ` ` `# Print example 2 ` `print` `(data_ex2) ` |

**Output:**

[,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [1,] 1 1 1 1 [2,] 2 2 2 2 [3,] 3 3 3 3 [4,] 4 4 4 4 [5,] 5 5 5 5 [6,] 6 6 6 6

Here in the above example, we have used the `sweep()`

function along with the stats.