# Changing row and column values of a Matrix in R Language – sweep() function

sweep() function in R Language is used to apply the operation “+ or -” to the row or column in data matrix.
It is used to sweep the values from the data-framework.

Syntax:
sweep(x, MARGIN, STATS, FUN)

Parameters:
x: Typically a matrix.
MARGIN: MARGIN = 1 means row; MARGIN = 2 means column.
STATS: the value that should be added or subtracted
FUN: The operation that has to be done (e.g. + or -)

Example 1: Sweep Matrix

 `# R program to illustrate ` `# sweep matrix ` ` `  `# Create example matrix ` `data <``-` `matrix(``0``, nrow ``=` `6``, ncol ``=` `4``)            ` ` `  `# Apply sweep in R ` `data_ex1 <``-` `sweep(x ``=` `data, MARGIN ``=` `1``, STATS ``=` `5``, FUN ``=` `"+"``)   ` ` `  `# Print example 1 ` `print``(data_ex1)   ` `                              `

Output:

```     [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4]
[1,]    5    5    5    5
[2,]    5    5    5    5
[3,]    5    5    5    5
[4,]    5    5    5    5
[5,]    5    5    5    5
[6,]    5    5    5    5
```

Here in the above code, the value of the matrix was 0, which was then sweeped by the `sweep()` function and the new value of the matrix became 5.

Example 2: Using sweep() with stats

 `# R program to illustrate ` `# sweep funtion with stats ` ` `  `# Create example matrix ` `data <``-` `matrix(``0``, nrow ``=` `6``, ncol ``=` `4``)            ` ` `  `# Sweep with Complex STATS ` `data_ex2 <``-` `sweep(x ``=` `data, MARGIN ``=` `1``,                        ` `                  ``STATS ``=` `c(``1``, ``2``, ``3``, ``4``, ``5``, ``6``), FUN ``=` `"+"``) ` ` `  `# Print example 2  ` `print``(data_ex2)                                                        `

Output:

```     [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4]
[1,]    1    1    1    1
[2,]    2    2    2    2
[3,]    3    3    3    3
[4,]    4    4    4    4
[5,]    5    5    5    5
[6,]    6    6    6    6
```

Here in the above example, we have used the `sweep()` function along with the stats.

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