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# Changing row and column values of a Matrix in R Language – sweep() function

• Last Updated : 06 Aug, 2021

sweep() function in R Language is used to apply the operation “+ or -” to the row or column in data matrix.
It is used to sweep the values from the data-framework.

Syntax:
sweep(x, MARGIN, STATS, FUN)
Parameters:
x: Typically a matrix.
MARGIN: MARGIN = 1 means row; MARGIN = 2 means column.
STATS: the value that should be added or subtracted
FUN: The operation that has to be done (e.g. + or -)

Example 1: Sweep Matrix

## Python3

 `# R program to illustrate``# sweep matrix` `# Create example matrix``data <``-` `matrix(``0``, nrow ``=` `6``, ncol ``=` `4``)          ` `# Apply sweep in R``data_ex1 <``-` `sweep(x ``=` `data, MARGIN ``=` `1``, STATS ``=` `5``, FUN ``=` `"+"``) ` `# Print example 1``print``(data_ex1) ``                             `

Output:

```     [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4]
[1,]    5    5    5    5
[2,]    5    5    5    5
[3,]    5    5    5    5
[4,]    5    5    5    5
[5,]    5    5    5    5
[6,]    5    5    5    5```

Here in the above code, the value of the matrix was 0, which was then swept by the sweep() function and the new value of the matrix became 5.

Example 2: Using sweep() with stats

## Python3

 `# R program to illustrate``# sweep function with stats` `# Create example matrix``data <``-` `matrix(``0``, nrow ``=` `6``, ncol ``=` `4``)          ` `# Sweep with Complex STATS``data_ex2 <``-` `sweep(x ``=` `data, MARGIN ``=` `1``,                      ``                  ``STATS ``=` `c(``1``, ``2``, ``3``, ``4``, ``5``, ``6``), FUN ``=` `"+"``)` `# Print example 2``print``(data_ex2)                                                      `

Output:

```     [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4]
[1,]    1    1    1    1
[2,]    2    2    2    2
[3,]    3    3    3    3
[4,]    4    4    4    4
[5,]    5    5    5    5
[6,]    6    6    6    6```

Here in the above example, we have used the sweep() function along with the stats.

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