Challenges For Indian Women Against Time and Space
Modern civilization is the outcome of the coordination between two major groups of our society i.e, men and women. In the current scenario, women are seen in positions of power by their merit; with constitutional control or virtual. But, still India is a male-dominated country, with males controlling the majority of economic, political, religious, social, and cultural organizations. Various discriminatory social practices and organizations have existed and grown overages to exert control over women’s livelihood choices and sexuality. Patriarchy is there to create obstacles for women to go forward in society and it is responsible for the inferior or secondary status of women, these patriarchal ideals are reinforced and legitimized by a mix of family, caste, community, and religion. Unfortunately, the media, both public and private, have not been harnessed for this, despite its enormous capacity to influence and alter minds.
Women are underpaid in comparison to males and the pay disparity between men and women is estimated at 23% which indicates that women are paid 77% of what males are paid. These estimates understate the true magnitude of wage disparities between men and women, especially in developing nations where informal self-employment is common.
Women’s challenges in India in terms of time and space:
In India, women confront several socio-cultural, economic, and political obstacles. These difficulties can be described as being in opposition to time and space.
A. Challenges against time:
1. Patriarchal structure:
A patriarchal social structure is one in which males have absolute power over women in all elements of society; while women stay at home and look after their children; men govern and make all the rules. When the family name derives from the male of a family or tribe, this is an example of patriarchy.
2. Violence against Women:
All types of physical and mental violence against women, whether at home or in society, including those deriving from norms, traditions, or accepted behaviors, must be successfully addressed in order to eliminate their occurrence. Law and aid mechanisms/schemes would be established and enhanced to prevent such violence, dowry customs; to rehabilitate victims of violence and to take appropriate action against offenders of such violence. Programs and initiatives to combat trafficking in women and girls will be given special attention.
Almost every day, women are victims of various forms of violence, which disrupts society. Women are becoming more and more victims of violence as the number of crimes against women rises. Every 44 minutes, a woman is kidnapped, every 47 minutes she is raped; every day there are 17 dowry deaths, and so on.
3. Education Issues for Women:
The issue of women’s education in India is one that instantly grabs our attention. In India, the literacy and education rate of women are poor, particularly in rural regions, since women are discouraged from pursuing higher education, such as professional and technical education. Girls’ and women’s education is an important aspect of national development. Efforts to enhance and broaden their education will not be pushed to the background owing to a lack of funds. It should be recalled that there is still a significant educational disparity between males and females.
4. Dowry system:
Another issue that women’s families experience during or after marriage is known to all i.e dowry. Bridegrooms’ parents demand a large sum of money from the bride’s family in order to become wealthy in a short period of time. Brides are burned by the groom’s family if the dowry demand is not met. According to estimates from the Indian National Crime Bureau, roughly 6787 dowry death cases were recorded in India in 2005.
Today, the government has passed a number of laws and reforms aimed at not just eliminating the dowry system, but also boosting the position of women through a range of measures. The legislation, however, has failed to deliver the anticipated consequences in our culture due to the social character of the problem.
5. Female Infanticide:
It has been the most popular technique in India for years, in which a medical expert performs a sex-selective abortion on a female baby in the mother’s womb following fetal sex determination.
B. Challenges Against space:
1. Women safety at workplace issues:
The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition, and Redressal) Act of 2013 establishes rules for preserving women’s safety and dignity at work. Employers are required under the Act to defend the rights of female employees and to promote a culture of zero tolerance for sexual harassment.
2. Participation of women in Various bodies:
Political parties are hesitant to put women on ballots for legislative and parliamentary elections. As a result, women’s participation in political parties is a serious topic since political parties may enable women to participate in political decision-making. The present number of women members in the Lok Sabha was 81. Despite the fact that women make up over half of India’s population, just 81 of the 545 members of the Lok Sabha are female. In Rajya Sabha, the present number of women members is 29 (the total number of Rajya Sabha members is 238). Indian Parliament currently has 14.05% women representation, and state assemblies have only 11%. Even though the 73rd constitutional amendment act mandates 33% of panchayat seats to be reserved for women.
3. Sexual Harassment in Workplace:
The Me too Movement has brought to light several cases of workplace sexual harassment. However, because of the delayed court system, these women have yet to receive justice.
4. Working and Motherhood:
Navigating job prospects while optimizing parenthood is a major difficulty for working women. Motherhood confers upon a woman the responsibility of raising a child; along with motherhood, work adds to the completeness of being a woman, this process also changes the way in which she is perceived in society and at her workplace.
Working mothers can “lean in” to either their professions or parenthood, but seldom both at the same time. Allowing a working mother to return to work where she left off should be the norm.
Legal measures taken by the government, such as sexual harassment prevention, women’s support lines, schemes geared at women’s welfare, and the targeting of programs such as LPG DBT transfer into women’s accounts, will go a long way toward empowering and encouraging women. In order to improve the condition of women, according to our first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru: “India To awaken the people, it is the woman who must be awakened. Once she is on the move, the family moves, the village moves, the nation moves”.