CBSE Class 11 | Mobile Operating Systems – Symbian, Android and iOS
It is a dropped mobile operating system and digital platform developed for smartphones. It was initially developed for a closed-source operating system for personal digital assistant in 1988 by Symbian Ltd. It was used by many popular brands named as Samsung, Sony Ericsson, Nokia, etc. The OS of Symbian contains two components: microkernel and user interface. The Symbian OS was written in C++ language. Various versions of Symbian OS:
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- EPOC32(Electronic Piece of Cheese)
- Symbian OS 6.0 and 6.1
- Symbian OS 6.2
- Symbian OS 7.0
- Symbian OS 7.0
- Symbian OS 8.0
- Symbian OS 9.1
- Symbian OS 9.3
- Symbian OS 9.5
Evolution Of Symbian: Symbian was begun from EPOC32. It was developed by Psion in the 1990s. In 1998, Psion software turns into Symbian Ltd. and established a partnership with Nokia, Sony Ericsson, and Motorola. After that Symbian OS goes under several different software platforms was created for Symbian with the help of these big companies. They incorporate S60(for Nokia, LG, and Samsung), UIQ(Ericsson and Motorola) and MOAP(for Japanese only). Symbian cover 67% of the global market of the smartphone in 2006. Nokia was the biggest shareholder of Symbian. In 2008, Nokia takes over Symbian Ltd. and established a new non- profit organization named as Symbian foundation. In 2010 Apple launched its iPhone and Google launched its Android Os, which continuously decreasing the popularity of Symbian. In 2012 Nokia launched the last Symbian smartphone named as Nokia808 PureView. In 2014 Nokia breaks its all ties with Symbian.
Features of Symbian OS: Symbian OS contained a browser, messaging, multimedia, communication protocol, mobile telephony, data synchronization, security, application environment, multi-tasking, robustness, flexible.
Advantages of Symbian OS:
- Symbian OS provides open platform to enable independent technology and software vendors to develop third party app.
- Symbian allowed impressive battery life.
- Symbian required lower hardware requirements.
Disadvantages of Symbian OS
- Symbian OS is dependent on Nokia
- Major drawback of Symbian os is it provided a late response as compared to ios and Android.
- The touch of Symbian use devices are not as smooth as compared to ios and android devices.
Android is a mobile operating system which is successfully developed by Google. The Android OS is based on Linux operating system and open source operating system which is specially developed for touchscreen mobile devices like tablet, smartphones, AndroidTv, wear OS, etc. Android os is written in java. Android brought a drastic change in the mobile technology.
Evolution of Android: Originally android is developed by Android Inc. and in 2007 Google brought android. The concept of Android was described by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White in 2003. In September 2008, Android was released as the first commercial Android device. Afterward, the operating system of android undergoes several major changes. The current member of the Android family is 9.0 (Name: Pie). The core code source of Android is known as Android Open Source Project(AOSP) and it is licensed under Apache license. Apache license is also free software and open source license. HTC Dream was the first commercially available smartphone with Android as an operating system of the smartphone. On September 23, 2008, Google officially released the first version of Android that is android 1.0. After successfully release of Android 1.1 Android goes through several updates, the updates of android continuous improvement in the operating system, adding new features, fixing bugs in the previous release. Various versions of Android are:
- Android 1.0: Name-unnamed, Year-2008
- Android 1.1: Name-Petit Four, Year-2009
- Android 1.5: Name-Cupcake, Year-2009
- Android 1.6: Name-Donut, Year-2009
- Android 2.0, 2.1: Name-Eclair, Year-2009
- Android 2.2: Name-Froyo, Year-2010
- Android 2.3, 2.4: Name-Gingerbread, Year-2010
- Android 3.0, 3.1, 3.2: Name-Honeycomb, Year-2011
- Android 4.0: Name-Ice Cream Sandwich, Year-2011
- Android 4.1: Name-Jelly Beans, Year-2012
- Android 4.4: Name-KitKat, Year-2013
- Android 5.0: Name-Lollipop, Year-2014
- Android 6.0: Name-Marshmallow, Year-2015
- Android 7.0: Name-Nougat, Year-2016
- Android 8.0: Name-Oreo, Year-2017
- Android 9.0: Name-Pie, Year-2018
Features Of Android: Basic features of hardware is divided into two parts:
- Hardware based features: Audio, Bluetooth, GSM, Microphone, NFC, and sensors.
- Software based features:app widgets, home screen, input method, live wallpapers, layout, storage, messaging, multi-language support, browser, Java support, media support, multi-touch, calls, multitasking, accessibility, external storage, video calling, optimized graphics, etc.
Advantages Of Android:
- Android can be built by anyone because it is based on Linux open source.
- Android phones are multitasking, you can perform multiple tasks at the same time. For example, while listening to music you can chat with your friend.
- Android provides app market known as Play Store. From the play store, you can download and install different types of apps in your mobile phones.
- Android provides a notification facility. Whenever new message comes, an email arrived on the phone it automatically shows on the home screen of the phone.
- Android provides a widget. With the help of a widgets, you can easily change or access an app.
Disadvantages of Android:
- Most of the apps and features of android required an active internet connection. Without the active internet connection, you cannot access them.
- In android OS the wastage of battery is more due to the background processing.
- Many of the android application contains virus, for example counter strike ground force was supposed to have virus.
- Android system is not safe as iOS.
iOS(iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system which is successfully designed and developed by the Apple Inc. iOS is the largest used mobile operating system after Android. It is basically designed for iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch. In terms of security, iOS is more secure than Android. The iOS interface depends upon the direct manipulation by using touch gestures.
Evolution of iOS: The concept of iPhone was innovated by the Steve Jobs in 2005. For iPhone, the iPhone OS is created by the Scott Forstall and Forstall also develop software development kit for programmers to create iPhone applications, as well as an App Store within iTunes. The first official iPhone with iPhone OS was released in 2007. After the success of the iPhone in 2008, Apple announced the iPhone SDK for developers to develop applications for iPhone. In 2008 Apple released the iOS App Store with 500 applications. In 2010 Apple renamed the iPhone OS as iOS. The latest version of iOS is 11 and it is available for iPhone 5S, iPad Pro, iPad Mini2 and sixth generation iPod Touch.
Various versions of IOS:
- iPhone OS 1:Year-2007
- iPhone OS 2:Year-2008
- iPhone OS 3:Year-2009
- iOS 4:Year-2010
- iOS 5:Year-2011
- iOS 6:Year-2012
- iOS 7:Year-2013
- iOS 8:Year-2014
- iOS 9:Year-2015
- iOS 10:Year-2016
- iOS 11:Year-2017
Features Of iOS: iOS contains home screen, touchID for apps, icloud drive, health, Siri(personal assistant), Safari(browser), multitasking, message, interactive notification, camera, icloud photo library, game center, bluetooth, calls, accessibility, voice recognition, face recognition, battery usage indicator, Wi-Fi etc.
Advantages Of iOS:
- In terms of performance iOS is magnificent and smooth.
- iOS generate less heat while processing as compare to Android.
- iOS are best for gaming and business purposes.
- iOS provides excellent security.
- It provides Jailbreaking for customization.
- It provides good face recognition security.
Disadvantages of iOS:
- iOS is depends upon iOS devices.
- iOS is not an open source.
- The price of iOS devices are very high.
- The cost of iOS apps are very high.
- iOS devices supports only single SIM.
- iOS applications are larger in size as compared to other mobile platforms.