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Category Archives: Computer Organization and Architecture

8051 microcontroller is a 40 pin Dual Inline Package (DIP). These 40 pins serve different functions like read, write, I/O operations, interrupts etc. 8051 has… Read More
1. DDR : DDR stands for Double Data Rate. It is used in computers and laptops, and it can transfer double data chunks to memory… Read More
Prerequisite – Classification of Computers 1. Microcomputer : A microcomputer is a general-purpose computer also known as a personal computer. Microcomputers are used for day to day… Read More
A power-on self-test (POST) is a set of routines performed by firmware or software immediately after a computer is powered on, to determine if the… Read More
Let’s say that you want to build a computer or you want to change the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) of your existing PC since it… Read More
Let us consider following decomposition of instruction execution into five stages. These are give as follows below. Fetch Instruction (IF) : It reads the next… Read More
Prerequisite : IEEE Standard 754 Floating Point NumbersGiven a floating point number, the task is to find the hexadecimal representation for the number by IEEE… Read More
When doing addition/subtraction on binary numbers in other representations we need to apply different logics (circuits) to perform addition and subtraction. In 2s-complement representation, we… Read More
Debugging is the process of identifying and removing bug from software or program. It refers to identification of errors in the program logic, machine codes,… Read More
Prerequisite – 8254 Programmable Interval Timer After power-up, the state of the 8254 is undefined. The Mode, count value, and output of all Counters are… Read More
In computers, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that perform a specific task, packaged as a unit. This unit can then be used… Read More
When microprocessor receives any interrupt signal from peripheral(s) which are requesting its services, it stops its current execution and program control is transferred to a… Read More
8254 is a device designed to solve the timing control problems in a microprocessor. It has 3 independent counters, each capable of handling clock inputs… Read More
Problem – Write an assembly language program in 8086 microprocessor to search a number in a string of 5 bytes, store the offset where the… Read More
Problem – Write an assembly language program in 8085 microprocessor to subtract two 8 bit BCD numbers. Example – Algorithm – Load the data from… Read More