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Category Archives: Computer Subject

The distinct keyword is used in conjunction with select keyword. It is helpful when there is a need of avoiding duplicate values present in any… Read More
Select is the most commonly used statement in SQL. The SELECT Statement in SQL is used to retrieve or fetch data from a database. We… Read More
Database Management System – Introduction | Set 1 DBMS 3-tier Architecture DBMS 3-tier architecture divides the complete system into three inter-related but independent modules as… Read More
A database is a collection of inter-related data which helps in the efficient retrieval, insertion, and deletion of data from the database and organizes the… Read More
A Data Base Management System is a system software for easy, efficient and reliable data processing and management. It can be used for: Creation of… Read More
Database systems comprise complex data structures. In order to make the system efficient in terms of retrieval of data, and reduce complexity in terms of… Read More
A Database store a lot of critical information to access data quickly and securely. Hence it is important to select a correct Architecture for efficient… Read More
  A transaction is a single logical unit of work that accesses and possibly modifies the contents of a database. Transactions access data using read… Read More
Indexing is a way to optimize the performance of a database by minimizing the number of disk accesses required when a query is processed. It… Read More
Problem: Given 2 process i and j, you need to write a program that can guarantee mutual exclusion between the two without any additional hardware… Read More
Problem: Given 2 processes i and j, you need to write a program that can guarantee mutual exclusion between the two without any additional hardware… Read More
In computing, the producer-consumer problem (also known as the bounded-buffer problem) is a classic example of a multi-process synchronization problem. The problem describes two processes,… Read More
  Decidable Problems A problem is decidable if we can construct a Turing machine which will halt in finite amount of time for every input… Read More
Prerequisite – Pushdown Automata and Context Free Languages .  Suppose we have a context free grammar G with production rules: S->aSb|bSa|SS|ℇ   Left most derivation (LMD)… Read More
Moore Machines: Moore machines are finite state machines with output value and its output depends only on present state. It can be defined as (Q, q0, ∑, O, δ, λ) where: Q is finite set of states. q0 is the initial state. ∑ is the input alphabet. O is the output alphabet. δ is transition function which maps Q×∑ → Q. λ is the output function which maps Q → O. Figure 1 In the moore machine shown in Figure 1, the output is represented with each input state separated by /. The length of output for a moore machine is greater than input by 1. Input: 11 Transition: δ (q0,11)=> δ(q2,1)=>q2 Output: 000 (0 for q0, 0 for q2 and again 0 for q2)  Mealy Machines: Mealy machines are also finite state machines with output value and its output depends on present state and current input symbol. It can be defined as (Q, q0, ∑, O, δ, λ’) where: Q is finite set of states. q0 is the initial state. ∑ is the input alphabet. O is the output alphabet. δ is transition function which maps Q×∑ → Q. ‘λ’ is the output function which maps Q×∑→ Q. Figure… Read More

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