Let us first define Overloading and Overriding.
Overriding: Overriding is a feature of OOP languages like Java that is related to run-time polymorphism. A subclass (or derived class) provides a specific implementation of a method in the superclass (or base class).
The implementation to be executed is decided at run-time and a decision is made according to the object used for the call. Note that signatures of both methods must be the same. Refer Overriding in Java for details.
Overloading: Overloading is also a feature of OOP languages like Java that is related to compile-time (or static) polymorphism. This feature allows different methods to have the same name, but different signatures, especially the number of input parameters and type of input parameters. Note that in both C++ and Java, methods cannot be overloaded according to the return type.
Can we overload static methods?
The answer is ‘Yes’. We can have two or more static methods with the same name, but differences in input parameters. For example, consider the following Java program.
Test.foo() called Test.foo(int) called
Can we overload methods that differ only by static keyword?
We cannot overload two methods in Java if they differ only by static keyword (number of parameters and types of parameters is the same). See the following Java program for example. This behavior is the same in C++ (See point 2 of this).
Compiler Error, cannot redefine foo()
Can we Override static methods in java?
We can declare static methods with the same signature in the subclass, but it is not considered overriding as there won’t be any run-time polymorphism. Hence the answer is ‘No’.
If a derived class defines a static method with the same signature as a static method in the base class, the method in the derived class hides the method in the base class.
Static or class method from Base Non-static or Instance method from Derived
The following are some important points for method overriding and static methods in Java.
1) For class (or static) methods, the method according to the type of reference is called, not according to the object being referred, which means method call is decided at compile time.
2) For instance (or non-static) methods, the method is called according to the type of object being referred, not according to the type of reference, which means method calls is decided at run time.
3) An instance method cannot override a static method, and a static method cannot hide an instance method. For example, the following program has two compiler errors.
4) In a subclass (or Derived Class), we can overload the methods inherited from the superclass. Such overloaded methods neither hide nor override the superclass methods — they are new methods, unique to the subclass.
This article is contributed by Chandra Prakash. Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above.
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