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# C# | Literals

The fixed values are called as Literal. Literal is a value that is used by the variables. Values can be either an integer, float or string, etc.

```// Here 100 is a constant/literal.
int x = 100; ```

Literals can be of the following types:

• Integer Literals
• Floating-point Literals
• Character Literals
• String Literals
• Null Literals
• Boolean Literals

Integer Literals: A literal of integer type is known as the integer literal. It can be octal, decimal, binary, or hexadecimal constant. No prefix is required for the decimal numbers. A suffix can also be used with the integer literals like U or u are used for unsigned numbers while l or L are used for long numbers. By default, every literal is of int type. For Integral data types (byte, short, int, long), we can specify literals in the ways:

• Decimal literals (Base 10): In this form, the allowed digits are 0-9.
`int x = 101;`
• Octal literals (Base 8): In this form, the allowed digits are 0-7.
```// The octal number should be prefix with 0.
int x = 0146; ```
• Hexa-decimal literals (Base 16): In this form, the allowed digits are 0-9 and characters are a-f. We can use both uppercase and lowercase characters. As we know that c# is a case-sensitive programming language but here c# is not case-sensitive.
```// The hexa-decimal number should be prefix
// with 0X or 0x.
int x = 0X123Face; ```
• Binary literals (Base 2): In this form, the allowed digits are only 1’s and 0’s.
```// The binary number should be prefix with 0b.
int x = 0b101```

Examples:

```07778    // invalid: 8 is not an octal digit
045uu    // invalid: suffix (u) is repeated
0b105    // invalid: 5 is not a binary digit
0b101    // valid binary literal
456      // valid decimal literal
02453    // valid octal literal
12356    // valid int literal
304U     // valid unsigned int literal
3078L    // valid long literal
965UL    // valid unsigned long literal ```

Program:

## C#

 `// C# program to illustrate the use of Integer Literals``using` `System;` `class` `Geeks{` `    ``// Main method``    ``public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args)``    ``{``      ` `        ``// decimal-form literal``        ``int` `a = 101;` `        ``// octal-form literal``        ``int` `b = 0145;` `        ``// Hexa-decimal form literal``        ``int` `c = 0xFace;``      ` `        ``// binary-form literal``        ``int` `x = 0b101;``        ` `        ``Console.WriteLine(a);``        ``Console.WriteLine(b);``        ``Console.WriteLine(c);``        ``Console.WriteLine(x);``    ``}``}`

```101
145
64206
5```

Floating-point Literals: The literal which has an integer part, a decimal point, a fractional part, and an exponent part is known as the floating-point literal. These can be represented either in decimal form or exponential form.

Examples:

```Double d = 3.14145       // Valid
Double d = 312569E-5      // Valid
Double d = 125E             // invalid: Incomplete exponent
Double d = 784f            // valid
Double d = .e45           // invalid: missing integer or fraction```

Program:

## C#

 `// C# program to illustrate the use of``// floating-point literals``using` `System;` `class` `Geeks {` `    ``// Main Method``    ``public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args)``    ``{``        ``// decimal-form literal``        ``double` `a = 101.230;` `        ``// It also acts as decimal literal``        ``double` `b = 0123.222;` `        ``Console.WriteLine(a);``        ``Console.WriteLine(b);``    ``}``}`

Output:

```101.23
123.222```

Note: By default, every floating-point literal is of double type and hence we can’t assign directly to float variable. But we can specify floating-point literal as float type by suffixed with f or F. We can specify explicitly floating-point literal as the double type by suffixed with d or D, of course, this convention is not required.

Character Literals: For character data types we can specify literals in 3 ways:

• Single quote: We can specify literal to char data type as single character within single quote.
`char ch = 'a';`
• Unicode Representation: We can specify char literals in Unicode representation ‘\uxxxx’. Here xxxx represents 4 hexadecimal numbers.
`char ch = '\u0061';// Here /u0061 represent a.`
• Escape Sequence: Every escape character can be specified as char literals.
`char ch = '\n';`

Example :

## C#

 `// C# program to illustrate the use of char literals``using` `System;` `class` `Geeks {` `    ``// Main Method``    ``public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args)``    ``{` `        ``// character literal within single quote``        ``char` `ch = ``'a'``;` `        ``// Unicode representation``        ``char` `c = ``'\u0061'``;` `        ``Console.WriteLine(ch);``        ``Console.WriteLine(c);` `        ``// Escape character literal``        ``Console.WriteLine(``"Hello\n\nGeeks\t!"``);``    ``}``}`

```a
a
Hello

Geeks    !```

String Literals: Literals which are enclosed in double quotes(“”) or starts with @”” are known as the String literals.

Examples:

```String s1 = "Hello Geeks!";

String s2 = @"Hello Geeks!";```

Program:

## C#

 `// C#  program to illustrate the use of String literals``using` `System;` `class` `Geeks {` `    ``// Main Method``    ``public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args)``    ``{` `        ``String s = ``"Hello Geeks!"``;``        ``String s2 = ``@"Hello Geeks!"``;` `        ``// If we assign without "" then it``        ``// treats as a variable``        ``// and causes compiler error``        ``// String s1 = Geeks;` `        ``Console.WriteLine(s);``        ``Console.WriteLine(s2);``    ``}``}`

Output:

```Hello Geeks!
Hello Geeks!```

Boolean Literals: Only two values are allowed for Boolean literals i.e. true and false.

Example:

```bool b = true;
bool c = false;```

Program:

## C#

 `// C# program to illustrate the use``// of boolean literals``using` `System;` `class` `Geeks {` `    ``// Main Method``    ``public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args)``    ``{``        ``bool` `b = ``true``;``        ``bool` `c = ``false``;` `        ``// these will give compile time error``        ``// bool d = 0;``        ``// bool e = 1;``        ``// Console.WriteLine(d);``        ``// Console.WriteLine(e);` `        ``Console.WriteLine(b);``        ``Console.WriteLine(c);``    ``}``}`

Output:

```True
False```

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