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C Program to Check for Majority Element in a sorted array

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  • Last Updated : 13 Dec, 2021

Question: Write a function to find if a given integer x appears more than n/2 times in a sorted array of n integers. 
Basically, we need to write a function say isMajority() that takes an array (arr[] ), array’s size (n) and a number to be searched (x) as parameters and returns true if x is a majority element (present more than n/2 times).

Examples: 

Input: arr[] = {1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 10}, x = 3
Output: True (x appears more than n/2 times in the given array)

Input: arr[] = {1, 1, 2, 4, 4, 4, 6, 6}, x = 4
Output: False (x doesn't appear more than n/2 times in the given array)

Input: arr[] = {1, 1, 1, 2, 2}, x = 1
Output: True (x appears more than n/2 times in the given array)

METHOD 1 (Using Linear Search) 
Linearly search for the first occurrence of the element, once you find it (let at index i), check element at index i + n/2. If element is present at i+n/2 then return 1 else return 0.

C




/* C Program to check for majority element in a sorted array */
# include <stdio.h>
# include <stdbool.h>
  
bool isMajority(int arr[], int n, int x)
{
    int i;
  
    /* get last index according to n (even or odd) */
    int last_index = n%2? (n/2+1): (n/2);
  
    /* search for first occurrence of x in arr[]*/
    for (i = 0; i < last_index; i++)
    {
        /* check if x is present and is present more than n/2
           times */
        if (arr[i] == x && arr[i+n/2] == x)
            return 1;
    }
    return 0;
}
  
/* Driver program to check above function */
int main()
{
     int arr[] ={1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4};
     int n = sizeof(arr)/sizeof(arr[0]);
     int x = 4;
     if (isMajority(arr, n, x))
        printf("%d appears more than %d times in arr[]",
               x, n/2);
     else
        printf("%d does not appear more than %d times in arr[]",
                x, n/2);
  
   return 0;
}

Output: 

4 appears more than 3 times in arr[]

Time Complexity: O(n)

METHOD 2 (Using Binary Search) 
Use binary search methodology to find the first occurrence of the given number. The criteria for binary search is important here. 

C




/* C Program to check for majority element in a sorted array */
# include <stdio.h>
# include <stdbool.h>
  
/* If x is present in arr[low...high] then returns the index of
first occurrence of x, otherwise returns -1 */
int _binarySearch(int arr[], int low, int high, int x);
  
/* This function returns true if the x is present more than n/2
times in arr[] of size n */
bool isMajority(int arr[], int n, int x)
{
    /* Find the index of first occurrence of x in arr[] */
    int i = _binarySearch(arr, 0, n-1, x);
  
    /* If element is not present at all, return false*/
    if (i == -1)
        return false;
  
    /* check if the element is present more than n/2 times */
    if (((i + n/2) <= (n -1)) && arr[i + n/2] == x)
        return true;
    else
        return false;
}
  
/* If x is present in arr[low...high] then returns the index of
first occurrence of x, otherwise returns -1 */
int _binarySearch(int arr[], int low, int high, int x)
{
    if (high >= low)
    {
        int mid = (low + high)/2; /*low + (high - low)/2;*/
  
        /* Check if arr[mid] is the first occurrence of x.
            arr[mid] is first occurrence if x is one of the following
            is true:
            (i) mid == 0 and arr[mid] == x
            (ii) arr[mid-1] < x and arr[mid] == x
        */
        if ( (mid == 0 || x > arr[mid-1]) && (arr[mid] == x) )
            return mid;
        else if (x > arr[mid])
            return _binarySearch(arr, (mid + 1), high, x);
        else
            return _binarySearch(arr, low, (mid -1), x);
    }
  
    return -1;
}
  
/* Driver program to check above functions */
int main()
{
    int arr[] = {1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 10};
    int n = sizeof(arr)/sizeof(arr[0]);
    int x = 3;
    if (isMajority(arr, n, x))
        printf("%d appears more than %d times in arr[]",
               x, n/2);
    else
        printf("%d does not appear more than %d times in arr[]",
               x, n/2);
    return 0;
}

Output: 

3 appears more than 3 times in arr[]

Time Complexity: O(Logn) 
Algorithmic Paradigm: Divide and Conquer

METHOD 3: If it is already given that the array is sorted and there exists a majority element, checking if a particular element is as easy as checking if the middle element of the array is the number we are checking against.

Since a majority element occurs more than n/2 times in an array, it will always be the middle element. We can use this logic to check if the given number is the majority element.

C




#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdbool.h> 
  
  
bool isMajorityElement(int arr[], int n, int key)
{
    if (arr[n / 2] == key)
        return true;
    else
        return false;
}
  
int main()
{
    int arr[] = { 1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 10 };
    int n = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
    int x = 3;
    if (isMajorityElement(arr, n, x))
        printf("%d appears more than %d times in arr[]", x,
            n / 2);
    else
        printf("%d does not appear more than %d times in "
            "arr[]",
            x, n / 2);
    return 0;
}
Output
3 appears more than 3 times in arr[]

Time complexity: O(1)
Auxiliary Space: O(1)

Please refer complete article on Check for Majority Element in a sorted array for more details!


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