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Program to find second most frequent character
• Difficulty Level : Basic
• Last Updated : 01 Jun, 2021

Given a string, find the second most frequent character in it. Expected time complexity is O(n) where n is the length of the input string.
Examples:

```Input: str = "aabababa";
Output: Second most frequent character is 'b'

Input: str = "geeksforgeeks";
Output: Second most frequent character is 'g'

Input: str = "geeksquiz";
Output: Second most frequent character is 'g'
The output can also be any other character with
count 1 like 'z', 'i'.

Input: str = "abcd";
Output: No Second most frequent character```

A simple solution is to start from the first character, count its occurrences, then second character, and so on. While counting these occurrences keep track of max and second max. Time complexity of this solution is O(n2).
We can solve this problem in O(n) time using a count array with a size equal to 256 (Assuming characters are stored in ASCII format). Following is the implementation of the approach.

## C++

 `#include ``using` `namespace` `std;``#define NO_OF_CHARS 256` `// CPP function to find the``// second most frequent character``// in a given string 'str'``char` `getSecondMostFreq(string str)``{``    ``// count number of occurrences of every character.``    ``int` `count[NO_OF_CHARS] = {0}, i;``    ``for` `(i = 0; str[i]; i++)``        ``(count[str[i]])++;` `    ``// Traverse through the count[] and``    ``// find second highest element.``    ``int` `first = 0, second = 0;``    ``for` `(i = 0; i < NO_OF_CHARS; i++)``    ``{``        ``/* If current element is smaller``        ``than first then update both``        ``first and second */``        ``if` `(count[i] > count[first])``        ``{``            ``second = first;``            ``first = i;``        ``}` `        ``/* If count[i] is in between first``        ``and second then update second */``        ``else` `if` `(count[i] > count[second] &&``                ``count[i] != count[first])``            ``second = i;``    ``}` `    ``return` `second;``}` `// Driver code``int` `main()``{``    ``string str = ``"geeksforgeeks"``;``    ``char` `res = getSecondMostFreq(str);``    ``if` `(res != ``'\0'``)``        ``cout << ``"Second most frequent char is "` `<< res;``    ``else``        ``cout << ``"No second most frequent character"``;``    ``return` `0;``}` `// This code is contributed by rathbhupendra`

## C

 `#include ``#define NO_OF_CHARS 256` `// C function to find the second most frequent character``// in a given string 'str'``char` `getSecondMostFreq(``char` `*str)``{``    ``// count number of occurrences of every character.``    ``int` `count[NO_OF_CHARS] = {0}, i;``    ``for` `(i=0; str[i]; i++)``        ``(count[str[i]])++;` `    ``// Traverse through the count[] and find second highest element.``    ``int` `first = 0, second = 0;``    ``for` `(i = 0; i < NO_OF_CHARS; i++)``    ``{``        ``/* If current element is smaller than first then update both``          ``first and second */``        ``if` `(count[i] > count[first])``        ``{``            ``second = first;``            ``first = i;``        ``}` `        ``/* If count[i] is in between first and second then update second  */``        ``else` `if` `(count[i] > count[second] &&``                 ``count[i] != count[first])``            ``second = i;``    ``}` `    ``return` `second;``}` `// Driver program to test above function``int` `main()``{``  ``char` `str[] = ``"geeksforgeeks"``;``  ``char` `res = getSecondMostFreq(str);``  ``if` `(res != ``'\0'``)``     ``printf``(``"Second most frequent char is %c"``, res);``  ``else``     ``printf``(``"No second most frequent character"``);``  ``return` `0;``}`

## Java

 `// Java Program to find the second``// most frequent character in a given string``public` `class` `GFG``{``    ``static` `final` `int` `NO_OF_CHARS = ``256``;``    ` `    ``// finds the second most frequently occurring``    ``// char``    ``static` `char` `getSecondMostFreq(String str)``    ``{``        ``// count number of occurrences of every``        ``// character.``        ``int``[] count = ``new` `int``[NO_OF_CHARS];``        ``int` `i;``        ``for` `(i=``0``; i< str.length(); i++)``            ``(count[str.charAt(i)])++;``     ` `        ``// Traverse through the count[] and find``        ``// second highest element.``        ``int` `first = ``0``, second = ``0``;``        ``for` `(i = ``0``; i < NO_OF_CHARS; i++)``        ``{``            ``/* If current element is smaller than``            ``first then update both first and second */``            ``if` `(count[i] > count[first])``            ``{``                ``second = first;``                ``first = i;``            ``}``     ` `            ``/* If count[i] is in between first and``            ``second then update second  */``            ``else` `if` `(count[i] > count[second] &&``                     ``count[i] != count[first])``                ``second = i;``        ``}``     ` `        ``return` `(``char``)second;``    ``}``     ` `    ``// Driver program to test above function``    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String args[])``    ``{``      ``String str = ``"geeksforgeeks"``;``      ``char` `res = getSecondMostFreq(str);``      ``if` `(res != ``'\0'``)``         ``System.out.println(``"Second most frequent char"``+``                                       ``" is "` `+ res);``      ``else``         ``System.out.println(``"No second most frequent"``+``                                       ``"character"``);``    ``}``}``// This code is contributed by Sumit Ghosh`

## Python 3

 `# Python 3 Program to find the``# second most frequent character``# in a given string` `# Function to find the second``# most frequent character``# in a given string 'str'``def` `getSecondMostFreq(``str``) :` `    ``NO_OF_CHARS ``=` `256` `    ``# Initialize count list of``    ``# 256 size with value 0``    ``count ``=` `[``0``] ``*` `NO_OF_CHARS` `    ``# count number of occurrences``    ``# of every character.``    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``len``(``str``)) :``        ``count[``ord``(``str``[i])] ``+``=` `1` `    ``first, second ``=` `0``, ``0` `    ``# Traverse through the count[]``    ``# and find second highest element.``    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(NO_OF_CHARS) :` `        ``# If current element is smaller``        ``# than first then update both``        ``# first and second``        ``if` `count[i] > count[first] :` `            ``second ``=` `first``            ``first ``=` `i` `        ``# If count[i] is in between``        ``# first and second``        ``# then update second */``        ``elif` `(count[i] > count[second] ``and``            ``count[i] !``=` `count[first] ) :``            ` `            ``second ``=` `i` `    ``# return character``    ``return` `chr``(second)` `# Driver code``if` `__name__ ``=``=` `"__main__"` `:` `    ``str` `=` `"geeksforgeeks"``    ` `    ``# function calling``    ``res ``=` `getSecondMostFreq(``str``)``    ``if` `res !``=` `'\0'` `:``        ``print``(``"Second most frequent char is"``, res)``    ``else` `:``        ``print``(``"No second most frequent character"``)` `# This code is contributed by ANKITRAI1`

## C#

 `// C# Program to find the second most frequent``// character in a given string``using` `System;` `public` `class` `GFG {``    ` `    ``static` `int` `NO_OF_CHARS = 256;``    ` `    ``// finds the second most frequently``    ``// occurring char``    ``static` `char` `getSecondMostFreq(``string` `str)``    ``{``        ` `        ``// count number of occurrences of every``        ``// character.``        ``int` `[]count = ``new` `int``[NO_OF_CHARS];` `        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < str.Length; i++)``            ``(count[str[i]])++;``    ` `        ``// Traverse through the count[] and find``        ``// second highest element.``        ``int` `first = 0, second = 0;``        ` `        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < NO_OF_CHARS; i++)``        ``{``            ` `            ``/* If current element is smaller``            ``than first then update both first``            ``and second */``            ``if` `(count[i] > count[first])``            ``{``                ``second = first;``                ``first = i;``            ``}``    ` `            ``/* If count[i] is in between first``            ``and second then update second */``            ``else` `if` `(count[i] > count[second] &&``                       ``count[i] != count[first])``                ``second = i;``        ``}``    ` `        ``return` `(``char``)second;``    ``}``    ` `    ``// Driver program to test above function``    ``public` `static` `void` `Main()``    ``{``        ``string` `str = ``"geeksforgeeks"``;``        ``char` `res = getSecondMostFreq(str);``        ` `        ``if` `(res != ``'\0'``)``            ``Console.Write(``"Second most frequent char"``+``                                        ``" is "` `+ res);``        ``else``            ``Console.Write(``"No second most frequent"``+``                                        ``"character"``);``    ``}``}` `// This code is contributed by nitin mittal.`

## PHP

 ` ``\$count``[``\$first``])``        ``{``            ``\$second` `= ``\$first``;``            ``\$first` `= ``\$i``;``        ``}` `        ``/* If count[i] is in between first``        ``and second then update second */``        ``else` `if` `(``\$count``[``\$i``] > ``\$count``[``\$second``] &&``                ``\$count``[``\$i``] != ``\$count``[``\$first``])``            ``\$second` `= ``\$i``;``    ``}` `    ``return` `chr``(``\$second``);``}` `    ``// Driver code``    ``\$str` `= ``"geeksforgeeks"``;``    ``\$res` `= getSecondMostFreq(``\$str``);``    ``if` `(``strlen``(``\$res``))``        ``echo` `"Second most frequent char is "``.``\$res``;``    ``else``        ``echo` `"No second most frequent character"``;` `// This code is contributed by mits``?>`

## Javascript

 ``

Output:

`Second most frequent char is g`

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