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C/C++ program to implement CHECKSUM

  • Last Updated : 03 Dec, 2021

The Checksum is an error detection method that detected errors in data/message while it is transmitted from sender to receiver. This method is used by the higher layer protocols and makes use of the Checksum Generator on the Sender side and Checksum Checker on the Receiver side.

Examples:

Input: sent_message = “10101111”, rec_message = “10101101”, block_size = 8
Output: Error
Explaination: Since the 7th bit in the sent_message and the rec_message is different, the final checksum value is not equal to zero denoting that some error has occurred during transmission.

Input: sent_message = “10000101011000111001010011101101”, rec_message = “10000101011000111001010011101101”, block_size = 8
Output: No Error

Approach: The given problem can be divided into two following parts:

  • Generating the Checksum value of the sender’s message can be done using the following steps:
  • Check if the value of the received message (i.e, rec_message + senders_checksum) is equal to 0.
    • The checksum of the received message can be calculated similarly to the checksum calculated in the above process.
    • If the checksum value is 0, the message is transmitted properly with no errors otherwise, some error has occurred during the transmission.

Below is the implementation of the above approach: 

C++




// C++ implementation of the above approach
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// Function to find the One's complement
// of the given binary string
string Ones_complement(string data)
{
    for (int i = 0; i < data.length(); i++) {
        if (data[i] == '0')
            data[i] = '1';
        else
            data[i] = '0';
    }
 
    return data;
}
 
// Function to return the checksum value of
// the give string when divided in K size blocks
string checkSum(string data, int block_size)
{
    // Check data size is divisible by block_size
    // Otherwise add '0' front of the data
    int n = data.length();
    if (n % block_size != 0) {
        int pad_size = block_size - (n % block_size);
        for (int i = 0; i < pad_size; i++) {
            data = '0' + data;
        }
    }
 
    // Binary addition of all blocks with carry
    string result = "";
 
    // First block of data stored in result variable
    for (int i = 0; i < block_size; i++) {
        result += data[i];
    }
 
    // Loop to calculate the block
    // wise addition of data
    for (int i = block_size; i < n; i += block_size) {
 
        // Stores the data of the next bloack
        string next_block = "";
 
        for (int j = i; j < i + block_size; j++) {
            next_block += data[j];
        }
 
        // Stores the binary addition of two blocks
        string additions = "";
        int sum = 0, carry = 0;
 
        // Loop to calculate the binary addition of
        // the current two blocls of k size
        for (int k = block_size - 1; k >= 0; k--) {
            sum += (next_block[k] - '0')
                   + (result[k] - '0');
            carry = sum / 2;
            if (sum == 0) {
                additions = '0' + additions;
                sum = carry;
            }
            else if (sum == 1) {
                additions = '1' + additions;
                sum = carry;
            }
            else if (sum == 2) {
                additions = '0' + additions;
                sum = carry;
            }
            else {
                additions = '1' + additions;
                sum = carry;
            }
        }
 
        // After binary add of two blocks with carry,
        // if carry is 1 then apply binary addition
        string final = "";
 
        if (carry == 1) {
            for (int l = additions.length() - 1; l >= 0;
                 l--) {
                if (carry == 0) {
                    final = additions[l] + final;
                }
                else if (((additions[l] - '0') + carry) % 2
                         == 0) {
                    final = "0" + final;
                    carry = 1;
                }
                else {
                    final = "1" + final;
                    carry = 0;
                }
            }
 
            result = final;
        }
        else {
            result = additions;
        }
    }
 
    // Return One's complements of result value
    // which represents the required checksum value
    return Ones_complement(result);
}
 
// Function to check if the received message
// is same as the senders message
bool checker(string sent_message,
             string rec_message,
             int block_size)
{
 
    // Checksum Value of the senders message
    string sender_checksum
        = checkSum(sent_message, block_size);
 
    // Checksum value for the receivers message
    string receiver_checksum = checkSum(
        rec_message + sender_checksum, block_size);
 
    // If receivers checksum value is 0
    if (count(receiver_checksum.begin(),
              receiver_checksum.end(), '0')
        == block_size) {
        return true;
    }
    else {
        return false;
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
    string sent_message
        = "10000101011000111001010011101101";
    string recv_message
        = "10000101011000111001010011101101";
    int block_size = 8;
 
    if (checker(sent_message,
                recv_message,
                block_size)) {
        cout << "No Error";
    }
    else {
        cout << "Error";
    }
 
    return 0;
}
Output
No Error

Time Complexity: O(N)
Auxiliary Space: O(block_size)


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