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Bromine Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 18 Apr, 2022

Bromine is the third lightest halogen and a volatile red-brown liquid at room temperature that readily forms a similarly colored vapor. Bromine was discovered by two chemists Carl Jacob Lowing and Antony Ballard in 1825 and 1826 respectively. Bromine doesn’t appear in nature as a free element it is always combined with other elements. It is well distributed in rocks, waters, soils, plants, animal tissues, and foodstuff. The most common salts are the bromides, organic and inorganic. A few substances such as seaweeds, sponges, and corals, contain it in relatively large quantities. It is usually found at very low concentrations in freshwaters, but in seawater, it is generally considered to be a major element. The state of bromine in seawater is bromide ion. Its derivatives are used in end-use industries. It is used for the preparation of bromine compounds. It is produced globally and serves as starting material for a variety of products. Examples of bromine compounds are methyl bromide, lithium bromide, silver bromide, etc.

Bromine Formula

Bromine is a chemical element with the symbol Br. Its atomic number is 35. Its electronic configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5 it belongs to the 17th group and 4th period of the periodic table it’s a P-Block element.

Structure of Bromine


Physical Properties of Bromine

  • Bromine formula is Br2
  • Its molecular weight is 159.808 g/mol
  • Its density is 3.1028 g/cm3
  • Its boiling point is 58.8°C
  • Its melting point is -7.2°C 

Chemical Properties of Bromine 

  • Bromine water oxidizes sulfurous acid to sulfuric acid.
  • In the presence of sunlight, bromine water decomposes releasing oxygen
  • It is irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory system.
  • Bromine reacts with hydrogen to produce hydrogen bromide gas,

H2 + Br2 ⇐⇒ 2HBr

  • Bromine reacts with phosphorus it will produce phosphorus tribromide,

2p + 3Br2  2pBr3

  • Bromine reacts with Arsenic it will produce Arsenic bromide,

2As + 3Br2 ⇢ 2AsBr3

  • Bromine reacts with Zinc it will produce Zinc bromide,

Zn + Br2 ZnBr2

Uses Of Bromine

  1. The bromine products are used in agriculture
  2. It is used in sanitation
  3. It is used in fire retardants
  4. Some bromine-containing compounds are used as sedatives
  5. Ethylene bromide was used as an anti-knocking ingredient in the gasoline-containing lead.
  6. It is used in pharmaceuticals and chemical intermediates.

Sample Questions 

Question 1: Why bromine is liquid?


Bromine has a slightly higher molecular weight than fluorine and has stronger intermolecular interactions thus it persists as a liquid at ambient temperature. Hence, bromine is a liquid.

Question 2: How does bromine affect the environment?


Bromine is very harmful to the atmosphere, its atoms are 40 to 100 times more destructive in the ozone layer than chlorine atoms. Reactions involving chlorine and bromine contribute to the ozone destruction rate.

Question 3: What is the texture of bromine?


Bromine is less reactive than chlorine or fluorine but more reactive than iodine. It is a dense reddish-brown liquid that evaporates easily at room temperature to a red vapor with a strong chlorine-like odor.

Question 4: Why is bromine very reactive?


Bromine is a very chemically reactive metal and thus is never pure in nature due to its 7 valance electrons and high electron affinity, it reacts readily and violently with the alkali metals.

Question 5: What foods contain bromine?


Brominated vegetable oil is found in many consumer citrus-flavored soft drink products such as Orange Fanta, Orange Crush Mountain Dew 

Question 6: What are the uses of sodium bromate?


The dead sea Bromine group produces sodium bromate and potassium bromate. Sodium Bromate is used mainly in the cosmetics industry and the textile industry. In the textile industry, the oxidative property of sodium bromate is used for wool treatment and various dyeing processes.

Question 7: How does bromine get into the ocean?


Bromine is the second element of the halogen group and occurs naturally in the environment mainly as bromine salts in small amounts in crustal rock from where it has been leached and then accumulated in the oceans.

Question 8: What are the uses of Lithium Bromide?


Lithium Bromide is non-volatile and remains in solution during absorption of water vapors as well as after reheating to evaporate the water .so it is used as a coolant in industrial cooling systems. The solutions are non-toxic and harmless to the environment. 

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