# Bitwise operators in Java

• Difficulty Level : Easy
• Last Updated : 07 Jul, 2021

Bitwise operators are used to performing manipulation of individual bits of a number. They can be used with any of the integral types (char, short, int, etc). They are used when performing update and query operations of Binary indexed tree.

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• Bitwise OR (|) –
This operator is a binary operator, denoted by ‘|’. It returns bit by bit OR of input values, i.e, if either of the bits is 1, it gives 1, else it gives 0.
For example,
```a = 5 = 0101 (In Binary)
b = 7 = 0111 (In Binary)

Bitwise OR Operation of 5 and 7
0101
| 0111
________
0111  = 7 (In decimal) ```
• Bitwise AND (&) –
This operator is a binary operator, denoted by ‘&’. It returns bit by bit AND of input values, i.e, if both bits are 1, it gives 1, else it gives 0.
For example,
```a = 5 = 0101 (In Binary)
b = 7 = 0111 (In Binary)

Bitwise AND Operation of 5 and 7
0101
& 0111
________
0101  = 5 (In decimal) ```
• Bitwise XOR (^) –
This operator is a binary operator, denoted by ‘^’. It returns bit by bit XOR of input values, i.e, if corresponding bits are different, it gives 1, else it gives 0.
For example,
```a = 5 = 0101 (In Binary)
b = 7 = 0111 (In Binary)

Bitwise XOR Operation of 5 and 7
0101
^ 0111
________
0010  = 2 (In decimal) ```
• Bitwise Complement (~) –
This operator is a unary operator, denoted by ‘~’. It returns the one’s complement representation of the input value, i.e, with all bits inverted, which means it makes every 0 to 1, and every 1 to 0.
For example,
```a = 5 = 0101 (In Binary)

Bitwise Complement Operation of 5

~ 0101
________
1010  = 10 (In decimal) ```
• Note – Compiler will give 2’s complement of that number, i.e., 2’s complement of 10 will be -6.

## Java

 `// Java program to illustrate``// bitwise operators``public` `class` `operators {``    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``    ``{``        ``// Initial values``        ``int` `a = ``5``;``        ``int` `b = ``7``;` `        ``// bitwise and``        ``// 0101 & 0111=0101 = 5``        ``System.out.println(``"a&b = "` `+ (a & b));` `        ``// bitwise or``        ``// 0101 | 0111=0111 = 7``        ``System.out.println(``"a|b = "` `+ (a | b));` `        ``// bitwise xor``        ``// 0101 ^ 0111=0010 = 2``        ``System.out.println(``"a^b = "` `+ (a ^ b));` `        ``// bitwise not``        ``// ~0101=1010``        ``// will give 2's complement of 1010 = -6``        ``System.out.println(``"~a = "` `+ ~a);` `        ``// can also be combined with``        ``// assignment operator to provide shorthand``        ``// assignment``        ``// a=a&b``        ``a &= b;``        ``System.out.println(``"a= "` `+ a);``    ``}``}`
Output
```a&b = 5
a|b = 7
a^b = 2
~a = -6
a= 5```

Shift Operators: These operators are used to shift the bits of a number left or right thereby multiplying or dividing the number by two respectively. They can be used when we have to multiply or divide a number by two. General format:

` number shift_op number_of_places_to_shift;`
• Signed Right shift operator (>>) –
Shifts the bits of the number to the right and fills the voids left with the sign bit (1 in case of negative number and 0 in case of positive number). The leftmost bit and a depends on the sign of initial number. Similar effect as of dividing the number with some power of two.
For example,
```Example 1:
a = 10
a>>1 = 5

Example 2:
a = -10
a>>1 = -5
We preserve the sign bit.```
• Unsigned Right shift operator (>>>) –
Shifts the bits of the number to the right and fills 0 on voids left as a result. The leftmost bit is set to 0. (>>>) is unsigned-shift; it’ll insert 0. (>>) is signed, and will extend the sign bit.
For example,
```Example 1:
a = 10
a>>>1 = 5

Example 2:
a = -10
a>>>1 = 2147483643
DOES NOT preserve the sign bit. ```
• Left shift operator (<<) –
Shifts the bits of the number to the left and fills 0 on voids left as a result. Similar effect as of multiplying the number with some power of two.
For example,
```a = 5 = 0000 0101
b = -10 = 1111 0110

a << 1 = 0000 1010 = 10
a << 2 = 0001 0100 = 20

b << 1 = 1110 1100 = -20
b << 2 = 1101 1000 = -40 ```
• Unsigned Left shift operator (<<<) –
Unlike unsigned Right Shift, there is no “<<<” operator in Java, because the logical (<<) and arithmetic left-shift (<<<) operations are identical.

## Java

 `// Java program to illustrate``// shift operators``public` `class` `operators {``    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``    ``{` `        ``int` `a = ``5``;``        ``int` `b = -``10``;` `        ``// left shift operator``        ``// 0000 0101<<2 =0001 0100(20)``        ``// similar to 5*(2^2)``        ``System.out.println(``"a<<2 = "` `+ (a << ``2``));` `        ``// right shift operator``        ``// 0000 0101 >> 2 =0000 0001(1)``        ``// similar to 5/(2^2)``        ``System.out.println(``"b>>2 = "` `+ (b >> ``2``));` `        ``// unsigned right shift operator``        ``System.out.println(``"b>>>2 = "` `+ (b >>> ``2``));``    ``}``}`
Output
```a<<2 = 20
b>>2 = -3
b>>>2 = 1073741821```

Refer for – other Operators in Java

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