# Bitwise operators in Java

Bitwise operators are used to perform manipulation of individual bits of a number. They can be used with any of the integral types (char, short, int, etc). They are used when performing update and query operations of Binary indexed tree.

1. Bitwise OR (|) –
This operator is binary operator, denoted by ‘|’. It returns bit by bit OR of input values, i.e, if either of the bits is 1, it gives 1, else it gives 0.
For example,

```a = 5 = 0101 (In Binary)
b = 7 = 0111 (In Binary)

Bitwise OR Operation of 5 and 7
0101
| 0111
________
0111  = 7 (In decimal) ```
2. Bitwise AND (&) –
This operator is binary operator, denoted by ‘&’. It returns bit by bit AND of input values, i.e, if both bits are 1, it gives 1, else it gives 0.
For example,

```a = 5 = 0101 (In Binary)
b = 7 = 0111 (In Binary)

Bitwise AND Operation of 5 and 7
0101
& 0111
________
0101  = 5 (In decimal) ```
3. Bitwise XOR (^) –
This operator is binary operator, denoted by ‘^’. It returns bit by bit XOR of input values, i.e, if corresponding bits are different, it gives 1, else it gives 0.
For example,

```a = 5 = 0101 (In Binary)
b = 7 = 0111 (In Binary)

Bitwise XOR Operation of 5 and 7
0101
^ 0111
________
0010  = 2 (In decimal) ```
4. Bitwise Complement (~) –
This operator is unary operator, denoted by ‘~’. It returns the one’s compliment representation of the input value, i.e, with all bits inversed, means it makes every 0 to 1, and every 1 to 0.
For example,

```a = 5 = 0101 (In Binary)

Bitwise Compliment Operation of 5

~ 0101
________
1010  = 10 (In decimal) ```

Note – Compiler will give 2’s complement of that number, i.e., 2’s compliment of 10 will be -6.

 `// Java program to illustrate ` `// bitwise operators ` `public` `class` `operators { ` `    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args) ` `    ``{ ` `        ``//Initial values ` `        ``int` `a = ``5``; ` `        ``int` `b = ``7``; ` ` `  `        ``// bitwise and ` `        ``// 0101 & 0111=0101 = 5 ` `        ``System.out.println(``"a&b = "` `+ (a & b)); ` ` `  `        ``// bitwise or ` `        ``// 0101 | 0111=0111 = 7 ` `        ``System.out.println(``"a|b = "` `+ (a | b)); ` ` `  `        ``// bitwise xor ` `        ``// 0101 ^ 0111=0010 = 2 ` `        ``System.out.println(``"a^b = "` `+ (a ^ b)); ` ` `  `        ``// bitwise and ` `        ``// ~0101=1010 ` `        ``// will give 2's complement of 1010 = -6 ` `        ``System.out.println(``"~a = "` `+ ~a); ` ` `  `        ``// can also be combined with ` `        ``// assignment operator to provide shorthand ` `        ``// assignment ` `        ``// a=a&b ` `        ``a &= b; ` `        ``System.out.println(``"a= "` `+ a); ` `    ``} ` `} `

Output :

```a&b = 5
a|b = 7
a^b = 2
~a = -6
a= 5 ```

Shift Operators: These operators are used to shift the bits of a number left or right thereby multiplying or dividing the number by two respectively. They can be used when we have to multiply or divide a number by two. General format:

` number shift_op number_of_places_to_shift;`
1. Signed Right shift operator (>>) –
Shifts the bits of the number to the right and fills 0 on voids left as a result. The leftmost bit depends on the sign of initial number. Similar effect as of dividing the number with some power of two.
For example,

```Example 1:
a = 10
a>>1 = 5

Example 2:
a = -10
a>>1 = -5
We preserve the sign bit.
```
2. Unsigned Right shift operator (>>>) –
Shifts the bits of the number to the right and fills 0 on voids left as a result. The leftmost bit is set to 0. (>>>) is unsigned-shift; it’ll insert 0. (>>) is signed, and will extend the sign bit.
For example,

```Example 1:
a = 10
a>>>1 = 5

Example 2:
a = -10
a>>>1 = 2147483643
DOES NOT preserve the sign bit. ```
3. Left shift operator (<<) –
Shifts the bits of the number to the left and fills 0 on voids left as a result. Similar effect as of multiplying the number with some power of two.
For example,

```a = 5 = 0000 0101
b = -10 = 1111 0110

a << 1 = 0000 1010 = 10
a << 2 = 0001 0100 = 20

b << 1 = 0000 1010 = -20
b << 2 = 0001 0100 = -40 ```
4. Unsigned Left shift operator (<<<) –
Unlike unsigned Right Shift, there is no “<<<" operator in Java, because the logical (<<) and arithmetic left-shift (<<<) operations are identical.

 `// Java program to illustrate ` `// shift operators ` `public` `class` `operators { ` `    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args) ` `    ``{ ` ` `  `        ``int` `a = ``5``; ` `        ``int` `b = -``10``; ` ` `  `        ``// left shift operator ` `        ``// 0000 0101<<2 =0001 0100(20) ` `        ``// similar to 5*(2^2) ` `        ``System.out.println(``"a<<2 = "` `+ (a << ``2``)); ` ` `  `        ``// right shift operator ` `        ``// 0000 0101 >> 2 =0000 0001(1) ` `        ``// similar to 5/(2^2) ` `        ``System.out.println(``"b>>2 = "` `+ (b >> ``2``)); ` ` `  `        ``// unsigned right shift operator ` `        ``System.out.println(``"b>>>2 = "` `+ (b >>> ``2``)); ` `    ``} ` `} `

Output :

```a<<2 = 20
b>>2 = -3
b>>>2 = 1073741821
```

Refer for – other Operators in Java

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