Open In App

Biometric System Architecture

Last Updated : 02 Dec, 2022
Improve
Improve
Like Article
Like
Save
Share
Report

Biometrics are computerized methods of identifying a person based on physiological and observable qualities. The use of biometric systems has impacted the way we identify and authenticate ourselves around the world.  By utilizing this technology, not only has the identification of people changed, but also the time it takes to identify and verify people has been significantly reduced. Face, fingerprints, handwriting, palmprints, hand geometry, gait, iris, retinal, and voice are the various characteristics that are measured in biometric techniques. 

Phases of Biometric System

There are two phases of a Biometric System: 

1. Enrollment phase: 
In the enrollment phase, biometric information of the user or person is recorded in a database. It is a one-time process. Generally, in this phase, measurement of the appropriate information is done very precisely. 

2. Recognition phase: 
This is the second phase of the biometric system. This occurs when the detection part begins based on the first phase of the authentication of the user. This phase must be quick, accurate, and able to determine the authentication problem easily.

Biometric System Architecture

Biometric system architecture has the following main components: 

Biometric Architecture

Biometric Architecture

1. Sensor: The sensor is the first block of the biometric system which collects all the important data for biometrics. It is the interface between the system and the real world. Typically, it is an image acquisition system, but it depends on the features or characteristics required that it has to be replaced or not.

2. Pre-processing: It is the second block that executes all the pre-processing. Its function is to enhance the input and to eliminate artifacts from the sensor, background noise, etc. It performs some kind of normalization.

3. Feature extractor: This is the third and the most important step in the biometric system. Extraction of features is to be done to identify them at a later stage. The goal of a feature extractor is to characterize an object to be recognized by measurements.

4. Template generator: The template generator generates the templates that are used for authentication with the help of the extracted features. A template is a vector of numbers or an image with distinct tracts. Characteristics obtained from the source groups come together to form a template. Templates are being stored in the database for comparison and serve as input for the match.

5. Matcher: The matching phase is performed by the use of a match. In this part, the procured template is given to a matcher that compares it with the stored templates using various algorithms such as Hamming distance, etc. After matching the inputs, the results will be generated.

6. Application device: It is a device that uses the results of a biometric system. The Iris recognition system and facial recognition system are some common examples of application devices.

Types of Biometric System

A person’s biometric traits fall into the following three categories: 

  1. Biological
  2. Physiological
  3. Behavioral.

A physiological trait is a biological pattern found on or in the human body, such as a face, fingerprints, iris pattern, DNA, hand geometry, etc. Behavioral patterns, however, develop over time and become consistent characteristics, such as handwriting, voice, gait, and typing rhythm. The biometric feature that is used to identify an individual determines the type of biometric system. Biological characteristics and behavioral traits of individuals can be detected and from which distinct, repeatable biometric features can be extracted to automate recognition.

The types of biometric systems are:

  1. Fingerprint Recognition System
  2. Facial Recognition System
  3. Iris Recognition System
  4. Handwriting Recognition System
  5. Hand geometry Recognition System
  6. Retina Recognition System
  7. Gait Recognition System
  8. Lip Motion Recognition System

Similar Reads

Difference between System Architecture and Software Architecture
1. System Architecture : System architecture is a conceptual model that describes the structure and behavior of multiple components and subsystems like multiple software applications, network devices, hardware, and even other machinery of a system. It is Architecture Description Language (ADL) which helps to describe the entire system architecture.
3 min read
Difference between System Design and System Architecture
When it comes to software development and engineering there can be some confusion, between the two terms "System Design" and "System Architecture." Although they are related they actually refer to stages and responsibilities in creating scalable and efficient systems. It is important to grasp the differences, between System Design and System Archit
3 min read
System Design of Uber App | Uber System Architecture
Getting the hassle-free transportation service(Uber, Ola) is very easy but is it also simple to build these gigantic applications that have hundreds of software engineers working on them for a decade? surely not. These systems have much more complex architecture and there are a lot of components joined together internally to provide riding services
12 min read
Android System Architecture
The Android software stack generally consists of a Linux kernel and a collection of C/C++ libraries that are exposed through an application framework that provides services, and management of the applications and run time. Linux KernelAndroid was created on the open-source kernel of Linux. One main reason for choosing this kernel was that it provid
3 min read
Architecture of an Embedded System | Set-3
Typical embedded system mainly has two parts i.e., embedded hardware and embedded software. Embedded hardwares are based around microprocessors and microcontrollers, also include memory, bus, Input/Output, Controller, where as embedded software includes embedded operating systems, different applications and device drivers. Basically these two types
2 min read
SQA system and architecture
Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is a set of exercises for ensuring quality in software measures. It ensures that created programming meets and follows the characterized or normalized quality determinations. SQA is a progressing cycle inside the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) that regularly checks the created software to ensure it meets the
4 min read
Architecture of a System
Architecture is a critical aspect of designing a system, as it sets the foundation for how the system will function and be built. It is the process of making high-level decisions about the organization of a system, including the selection of hardware and software components, the design of interfaces, and the overall system structure. Components con
4 min read
System Design of Youtube - A Complete Architecture
Youtube is one of the most popular and extensible biggest streaming video streaming services and the architecture contains various components that enhance user experience. When it comes down to Youtube services, it is been that commonly used in the daily world with tremendous users so the system design corresponding is likely a bit complex. Video r
8 min read
E-commerce Architecture | System Design for E-commerce Website
To sell and buy the goods and services we have to develop a system that helps the seller to connect with customers or customers can connect with multiple sellers. For this, we developed different E-Commerce architectures that we see in this article, components of E-Commerce architecture, and advantages of E-Commerce all these topics will be covered
7 min read
MACH architecture | System Design for Ecommerce Website
In the ever-evolving panorama of e-commerce, groups are continuously seeking revolutionary solutions to enhance their online presence, improve user experience, and give tough competition to their competitors. MACH, which stands for Microservices, API-first, Cloud-native, and Headless, represents a flexible system design philosophy that can transfor
6 min read