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Big Data Frameworks – Hadoop vs Spark vs Flink

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  • Last Updated : 13 Oct, 2022
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Hadoop is the Apache-based open source Framework written in Java. It is one of the famous Big Data tools that provides the feature of Distributed Storage using its file system HDFS(Hadoop Distributed File System) and Distributed Processing using Map-Reduce Programming model. Hadoop uses a cluster of commodity hardware to store and run the application. Since Hadoop uses a distributed computing model to process the Big Data. It also provides lots of features that improve its power. Hadoop provides Low Cost, Fault Tolerance, Scalability, Speed, Data Locality, High Availability, etc. The Hadoop Ecosystem is also very large that provides lots of other tools as well that works on top of Hadoop and makes it highly featured.

Spark is an open-source processing engine that is designed for ease of analytics operations. It is a cluster computing platform that is designed to be fast and made for general purpose uses. Spark is designed to cover various batch applications, Machine Learning, streaming data processing, and interactive queries. Apache Spark provides features like In-memory processing, a powerful processing engine comes with a tightly integrated component which makes it efficient. Spark Streaming has a high-level library used for the streaming process.

Flink is also an open-source stream processing framework that comes under the Apache license. Apache Flink is used for distributed and high performing data streaming applications. It also supports other processing like graph processing, batch processing and iterative processing in Machine Learning, etc. But it is mostly famous for stream processing. Now, we might get the doubt that all of this processing can also be done with Spark then why we need Flink. The answer is that Flink is considered to be the next generation stream processing engine which is fastest than Spark and Hadoop speed wise. If Hadoop is 2G, Spark is 3G then Flink will be 4G for the Big Data processing. Flink also provides us low latency and high throughput applications.  

Below is a table of differences between Hadoop, Spark, and Flink:

Based On

Apache Hadoop

Apache Spark

Apache Flink

Data ProcessingHadoop is mainly designed for batch processing which is very efficient in processing large datasets. It supports batch processing as well as stream processing.  It supports both batch and stream processing. Flink also provides the single run-time for batch and stream processing. 
Stream EngineIt takes the complete data-set as input at once and produces the output. Process data streams in micro-batches.The true streaming engine uses streams for workload: streaming, micro-batch, SQL, batch. 
Data FlowData Flow does not contain any loops. supports linear data flow.  Spark supports cyclic data flow and represents it as (DAG) direct acyclic graph.Flink uses a controlled cyclic dependency graph in run time. which efficiently manifest ML algorithms. 
      Computation ModelHadoop Map-Reduce supports the batch-oriented model. It supports the micro-batching computational model.Flink supports a continuous operator-based streaming model.
PerformanceSlower than Spark and Flink.More than Hadoop lesser than Flink.Performance is highest among these three.
Memory managementConfigurable Memory management supports both dynamically or statically management.The Latest release of spark has automatic memory management.Supports automatic memory management
Fault toleranceHighly fault-tolerant using a replication mechanism.Spark RDD provides fault tolerance through lineage.Fault tolerance is based on Chandy-Lamport distributed snapshots results in high throughput.
ScalabilityHighly scalable and can be scaled up to tens of thousands of nodes.Highly scalable.  It is also highly scalable.
Iterative ProcessingDoes not support Iterative Processing.supports Iterative Processing.supports Iterative Processing and iterate data with the help of its streaming architecture.
Supported LanguagesJava, C, C++, Python, Perl, groovy, Ruby, etc.Java, Python, R, Scala.Java, Python, R, Scala.
 CostUses commodity hardware which is less expensiveNeeded lots of RAM so the cost is relatively high.Apache Flink also needed lots of RAM so the cost is relatively high.
 Abstraction No Abstraction in Map-Reduce.Spark RDD abstraction Flink supports Dataset abstraction for batch and DataStreams
SQL supportUsers can run SQL queries using Apache Hive.Users can run SQL queries using Spark-SQL. It also supports Hive for SQL.Flink supports Table-API which are similar to SQL expression. Apache foundation is panning to add SQL interface in its future release.
 Caching Map-Reduce can not cache data. It can cache data in memoryFlink can also cache data in memory
Hardware RequirementsRuns well on less expensive commodity hardware.It also needed high-level hardware.Apache Flink also needs High-level Hardware
Machine LearningApache Mahout is used for ML.Spark is so powerful in implementing ML algorithms with its own ML libraries.  FlinkML library of Flink is used for ML implementation.
Line of codeHadoop 2.0 has 1,20,000 lines of codes.developed in 20000 lines of codes.It is developed in Scala and Java so no. of lines of code is less then Hadoop.
High Availability Configurable in High Availability Mode.Configurable in High Availability Mode. Configurable in High Availability Mode.
Amazon S3 connectorProvides Support for Amazon S3 Connector.Provides Support for Amazon S3 Connector.Provides Support for Amazon S3 Connector.
Backpressure HandingHadoop handles back-pressure through Manual Configuration.Spark also handles back-pressure through Manual Configuration.Apache Flink handles back-pressure Implicitly through System Architecture
Criteria for Windows Hadoop does not have any windows criteria since it does not support streaming.Spark has time-based window criteria.Flink has record-based Flink Window criteria.
Apache LicenseApache License 2.Apache License 2.Apache License 2.


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