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Barium Nitrate Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 22 Mar, 2022

Barium is an element with the atomic number 56. It is symbolized by ‘Ba’. It is the fifth element of group II that is an alkaline earth metal. Barium is not found in the free state in nature due to its high reactivity. Barium is a strong basic oxide and its oxidation state is +1, +2.

What is nitrogen?

Nitrogen is an element with the atomic number 7. It is symbolized by ‘N’. It is the element of group 15 that is non-metal. It is the lightest element of the group. Nitrogen is a strong acidic oxide and its oxidation state is −3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5.

What is Oxygen?

Oxygen is an element with the atomic number 8. It is symbolized by ‘O’. It is the element of the chalcogen group and is a highly reactive nonmetal. Oxygen is a strong oxidizing agent and its oxidation state is -2, -1, 0, +1, +2.

Barium Nitrate

Barium nitrate is an inorganic compound that is also known as barium dinitrate, Nitrobarite, or even barium salt. The Barium salt is usually found in a crystalline state which is white in colour. The compound is non-combustible in nature. But, while used as an oxidizing agent, burns with a green flame and can explode due to long exposure to flame.

Molecular Formula

The compound barium nitrate is formed by the combination of two parts of nitrate and one part of barium. Hence, the molecular formula of barium nitrate is given as 

Molecular Formula of Barium Nitrate = Ba(NO3)2

Structural Formula 

The structural formula of the compound gives the positional structure of atoms in the compound. The structure of barium nitrate is given as 

Properties of Barium Nitrate

  • Its chemical name is barium nitrate.
  • The molecular weight of barium nitrate is 261.33g/mol.
  • Its density is 3.24g/dm3.
  • The melting point of Barium nitrate is 592°C.

Production process of Barium Nitrate

The production of barium nitrate can be done by two different methods. The processes are initiated with the source components of barium.

Process I

The first process uses barium carbonate as a source. For, the production of barium nitrate following steps are followed;

  • Step I: First, dissolve barium carbonate(BaCO3) in nitric acid(HNO3).
  • Step II: Precipitation of iron impurities.
  • Step III: Separate the iron impurities by means of filtration.
  • Step IV: Evaporation of the excess solvent.
  • Step V: Crystallization of barium nitrate.

Process II

The second process uses barium sulfide as a source. For the production of barium nitrate, the barium sulfide(BaS) is combined with nitric acid(HNO3).

And, at high temperatures, the barium nitrate is decomposed into barium oxide, nitrite, and oxygen.

2Ba(NO3)2  => 2BaO + 2NO2 + O2

Uses of Barium Nitrate

  • Barium nitrate is highly used in pyrotechnics.
  • It is used as an oxidizing agent, propellant, and blowing agent.
  • It is used in rodenticide.
  • It is used in explosives.
  • It is used in detonators.
  • It is used in the production of paints.
  • The compound is used in making the ceramic glaze.
  • It is also used as an ingredient in some explosives.
  • It is used in tracer bullets as well.

Sample  Questions

Question 1. What is the refractive index of barium nitrate?

Answer:

The refractive index of barium nitrate is 1.565.

Question 2. What is the reaction involved in the decomposition of barium nitrate?

Answer:

When the high temperature is allowed on barium nitrate(Ba(NO3)2), it decomposes into barium oxide, nitrite, and oxygen.

2Ba(NO3)2  =>2BaO + 4NO2 + O2

Question 3. What are the effects of barium nitrate on human health?

Answer:

The effects of barium nitrate on human health are:

  • It can cause skin or eye irritation when brought to contact.
  • It can cause vomiting, diarrhoea, high blood pressure if swallowed accidentally.
  • Barium nitrate can cause hemorrhages in the intestines, stomach or kidneys, etc.

Question 4. Name an explosive in which barium nitrate is used.

Answer:

Barium nitrate is used in the explosive charge “SR 365”.

Question 5. List the steps involved in the process of production of barium nitrate.

Answer:

The steps involved in the process of production of barium nitrate are:

  • Dissolve barium carbonate in nitric acid.
  • Precipitation of iron impurities
  • Filtration
  • Evaporation
  • Crystallization

Question 6. What will happen if barium nitrate is exposed to flame for a long time?

Answer:

Barium nitrate is a non-combustible substance but it promotes the process of combustion to combustible substances. Hence, barium nitrate can lead to an explosion if exposed to flame for a long time.

Question 7. What are the cations and anions of barium nitrate?

Answer:

Barium nitrate is composed of barium cations Ba2+ and nitrate anions NO3-.

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