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Barium Chloride Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 04 Apr, 2022
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Barium is a chemical element with the atomic number 56. It is represented by the symbol ‘Ba‘. It is an alkaline earth metal and the sixth element in Group II. Due to its strong reactivity, barium is not found in nature in its free state. Barium is a strong basic oxide with the oxidation state +1, +2. However, Chlorine is a chemical element with the atomic number 17. It is represented by the symbol ‘Cl‘. Chlorine is a poisonous, caustic green gas that irritates the eyes and causes respiratory issues. It is the halogen family’s second lightest member.

What is Barium Chloride?

Barium Chloride (BaCl2) is a white solid chemical compound that is soluble in water, hygroscopic, and emits a faint yellow-green flame when exposed to heat. In industries, barium salts are frequently utilized. 

The sulphate is used in white paints, particularly for exterior applications. In nature, barium chloride is poisonous. An orthogonal crystal structure forms when anhydrous BaCl2 crystallizes. The dihydrate form of barium chloride, on the other hand, is known to have a monoclinic crystal structure.

Structure of Barium Chloride

The formula of Barium Chloride is made up of one barium cation (Ba2+) and one chloride anion (Cl). Therefore, the molecular or chemical formula of Barium chloride is BaCl2. It has a molecular mass of 208.23 g/mol in anhydrous form and 244.26 g/mol in dihydrate form. It has an orthogonal crystalline structure in anhydrous form and monoclinic as a dihydrate. It is a compound that contains barium (a soft, silvery metal) and chlorine (a poisonous green gas).

Structure of Barium Chloride

Physical Properties of Barium Chloride

  • Barium Chloride is white solid and has no odour at all.
  • The density of Barium Chloride is  3.856 g/cm3 as an anhydrous and 3.0979 g/cm3 as a dihydrate.
  • The melting point of Barium Chloride is 962 °C in anhydrous form and 960 °C in dihydrate form.
  • The boiling point of Barium Chloride is 1560 °C.
  • The heat capacity of Barium Chloride is 123.9 J/mol K.
  • The standard molar entropy of Barium Chloride is 123.9 J/mol K.
  • The standard enthalpy of formation of Barium Chloride is −858.56 kJ/mol.
  • Its aqueous solution is neutral in nature with a pH of 7.
  • The magnetic susceptibility of Barium Chloride is −72.6×10−6 cm3/mol.
  • Its solubility in water is 31.2 g/100 mL at 0 °C, 35.8 g/100 mL at 20 °C, and 59.4 g/100 mL at 100 °C.
  • In its anhydrous form, it is crystalline, orthorhombic, and monoclinic in its dehydrated form.

Chemical properties of Barium Chloride

  • Barium chloride interacts with water in the same way that any other binary chlorine salt does. In water, it dissociates to form Na+ and Cl like ions. It stays neutral and has no effect on the pH of the solution.

BaCl2 → Ba2++ 2Cl 

  • When barium chloride solution is combined with sodium sulphate, it generates a double substitution process. A white precipitate of barium sulphate is instantly generated at the bottom of the test tube through an ionic reaction. 

BaCl2 + Na2SO4 → BaSO4 + 2NaCl

Uses of Barium Chloride

  • Barium Chloride is used in the treatment of wastewater, in caustic chlorine facilities to purify brine (saline) solution.
  • Barium Chloride is very useful to make oil lubricants, PVC stabilizers, barium chromate, and barium fluoride, among other things, and also in steel case hardening.
  • It is used in the manufacture of pigments, in the production of various barium salts, in fireworks to provide vivid green color, and in the chlorine-alkali industry.
  • It is commonly utilized in the refining of crude oil, production of rubber, and the paper business.

Sample Questions

Question 1: What is the process for the preparation of Barium chloride?


Barium Chloride is prepared by the reaction of barite or Barium Sulphate (BaSO4) with carbon (C).

BaSO4 + 4 C → BaS + 4 CO

The second method to obtain Barium Chloride is by reacting Barium sulfide with hydrogen chloride.

BaS + 2 HCl → BaCl2 + H2S

Question 2: What happens when barium chloride is dissolved in water?


When BaCl2 is dissolved in water, a neutral solution is obtained. The pH of the resulting aqueous solution is 7. It’s a mixture of the strong acid HCl and the strong base barium hydroxide. It does not degrade due to hydrolysis.

Question 3: How can we prepare barium chloride from barium carbonate?


Barium Carbonate (a strong base) reacts with hydrochloric acid (a strong acid) to form barium carbonate. At room temperature, it is completely wilted in the desiccator.

BaCO₃ + 2HCl⟶ BaCl₂ + CO₂ + H₂O

Question 4: What are the side effects of barium chloride?


Humans are extremely sensitive to barium chloride. Exposure to this chemical can induce eye, mucous membrane, and skin irritation. Barium chloride ingestion or inhalation can potentially be lethal. It can also have a deleterious effect on the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and kidneys. It is also a major hazard to aquatic life.

Question 5: Give some safety measures that one can take to avoid hazards caused by exposure to barium chloride.


Following are the safety measures that one can take to avoid hazards caused by exposure to barium chloride:

  1. Make sure you’re not wearing contact lenses if barium chloride goes in eyes and if you are, take them out right once.
  2. Rinse your eyes for at least 15 minutes with cool running water while keeping your eyelids wide. 
  3. If chemicals get into touch with your clothing, remove them as quickly as possible to protect your hands and body, and immediately stand under a cold shower.
  4. If the person inhales it, he or she must stand in a well-ventilated place. In the event of serious inhalation, the person should seek medical attention as soon as possible.
  5. If the patient has ingested anything, induce vomiting as quickly as feasible if they are aware; otherwise, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
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