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Backup and Restore

  • Last Updated : 16 Jun, 2021
Geek Week

Computer security is the safeguarding of computer systems and data against theft, and illegal access, or against any disaster. It’s the method of guarding against and detecting illegal access to your computer system. Data security refers to the process of securing data from illegal access or any disaster. This process includes the following terms:

  • Data backup
  • Data Recovery

Data Backup

Data backup is the process of storing additional copies of your data in physical or virtual locations distinct from your data files in storage. Typically, backup data includes all the data – documents, media files, configuration and registry files, machine images, etc. required to perform the workload on your server. In essence, any data that you desire to keep can be saved as backup data.

The main goal of backup is to generate a copy of the data that can be recovered if the primary data fails. Failure can be – hardware or software failures, data corruption, or a human-initiated event such as an attack (virus or malware) or data deletion by an accident.

The act of backing up your data in the case of a loss and putting up secure mechanisms that allow you to recover your data, as a result, this process is known as data backup and recovery. It copies and preserves data in order to keep it available in the event of data loss or damage. Suppose you have backed up your data, so you can only recover data from a previous point in time. Data backup is a type of disaster recovery that should be included in every plan for disaster recovery.

Backup copies should be made on a constant, regular basis for optimal outcomes, since this will reduce the amount of data lost between backups. When recovering from a backup, the longer the gap between backup copies, the greater the risk of data loss.



Note – Even if you back up your data, you may not be able to restore all of your system’s data and settings.

Types of Backups:

1. Full Backup: As the name implies, backs up each and every file and folder (hard drives and more) on the system. As the backup is full and complete, it takes longer time and takes up more space than other backup options, but the process of recovering lost data from backup is much faster.

2. Differential Backup: These backups begin with a full backup, which saves all of your files. Then differential backups are performed, which save only the data that has changed since the previous full backup. This saves a lot of time and resources compared to doing continuous full backups. Its backups only save changes to files that changed as compared to the previous backup and it also makes a copy if new files if any. It also provides for a speedier restore time than incremental although it requires more storage space.

3. Incremental Backup: An incremental backup is similar to a differential backup, but it only includes the data that has changed since the last backup. The differential backup, on the other hand, includes all data since the previous complete backup. Although incremental backups need the least amount of storage space, they can take longer to retrieve data because they must be executed independently during a recovery. However, because they are significantly smaller than full or differential backups, they usually require less restoral time.

4. Network Backup: It backs up a file system from one machine onto a backup device connected to another machine. It is referred to as a remote or network backup.

Note: The restoration speed of Full Backup is fastest, but its backup speed is the slowest. Backup speed for incremental is fastest and it requires low memory but its restoration speed is the slowest.

Backup Devices:



You can take backup of your data on any of the following devices:

1. CD and DVD: Because they have a small capacity ranging from 1000’s of MB to a few GB, they are utilized for home/personal use where users can save their papers, primarily personal or office-related papers.

2. USB sticks: USB sticks are small in size and cost, but they’re big in storage capacity; you can obtain up to 128 gigabytes on a USB stick. They are small in size but have a good transfer speed.

3. USB Drives: This sort of drive has a size range of 500MB to 2TB and is compatible, and normally includes backup and recovery software. Encryption, convenient automatic backups, and a cloud backup option are all included in many models. The cost is high.

4. Solid-state drives (SSDs): They are more expensive than hard drives, but they’re also more reliable, smaller, faster, and consume less power. SSDs are ideal for applications where a speed improvement is worthwhile, such as system files or multimedia production.

5. NAS (network-attached storage): A network-attached storage is a file storage device that delivers centralized, consolidated disc storage to local-area network (LAN) users via a normal Ethernet connection. NAS allows a network with servers to add more hard disc storage capacity without having to shut them down for maintenance and updates. You can use it solely for backups, or you may use it for file sharing and streaming of multimedia as well.

Data Recovery 

Data recovery, often known as a restore, is required when data of any sort is no longer readable or has been corrupted by a malicious alteration. The act, process, or occurrence of recovering data following inadvertent loss or corruption is known as recovery. The cost of recovering data is high.

Causes Of Data Recovery:

Businesses might lose data in a variety of ways. Mistakes in technology can sometimes result in data loss that is irreversible. Other times, hackers manage to breach or evade a company’s defense, taking data for their malevolent purposes or draining the company’s resources. The following are the most prevalent reasons for data loss:

1. Virus/Spyware/Malware attack.



2. Natural calamities

3. Hardware Failure

4. Human errors.

5. Manipulation in software etc.

Sample Problem

Question 1. Do the backup process affects the performance of the internet?

Solution:

Online backup use cutting-edge technology to reduce the influence on your computer’s and internet’s performance. This ensures that you may keep working while the backup is taking place. Most backups are performed late at night to reduce the impact on your normal internet and PC usage. During business hours, bandwidth can be throttled to reduce the impact of a big backup on your end users.

Question 2. Compare and contrast different backup types.

Solution:

There are 3 types of backup types : 

  1. Full backup
  2. Differential  backup
  3. Incremental  backup

They can be differentiated in terms of :

  • Data Backup : In full backup, all data is backup while in differential  backup, all data since last full is backup & in incremental only new/modified files/folders are backup.
  • Backup time: Time for  Full backup is the most, moderate for differential backup & lowest for incremental  backup.
  • Restore Time: Time to restore the data in  Full backup is the lowest, for differential backup is also low & moderate for  incremental  backup.
  • Storage space:  In full backup, memory requirement is the most while in differential  backup, memory requirement is moderate & in incremental , this requirement is the least.

Question 3. What kind of data is needed to be backup?

Solution:

You should back up anything that can’t be replaced if it’s lost as a starting point. Individuals may be affected by the following factors:

  • Photographs
  • Excel Spreadsheets
  • Documents
  • Videos available.
  • Files containing music
  • e-mail
  • Databases having financial information
  • Address Books

Data backups for businesses get a little more sophisticated — think of backing up customer databases, configuration files, machine images, operating systems, and registry files — and they’re usually managed by an IT department.

Question 4. What are the causes for data recovery?

Solution:

The following are the cause of data recovery:

1. Virus/Spyware/Malware attack.

2. Natural calamities



3. Hardware Failure

4. Human errors.

5. Manipulation in software etc.

Question 5. List the device that can be used for backup of data.

Solution:

The devices that are used to backup data are:

  • CD and DVD
  • USB Stick
  • USB Drives
  • SSD
  • NAS

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