Closure of a set F of FDs is the set F^{+} of all FDs that can be inferred from F. It is also known as complete set of Functional Dependency. It is denoted by F^{+}.

**Algorithm : Attribute Closure set**

Algorithm to compute a^{+}, the closure of a under F Result:= a; while (changes to Result) do for each B → Y in F do Begin if B ⊆ Result then Result := Result ∪ Y End

**Utilization of Attribute Closure –**

- To test given attribute(s) is superkey/candidate key or not.
- We can check if FD X → Y holds.
- An alternative way to find out F
^{+}.

- Test whether attribute is superkey or not.
**Example :**

Let R = (A, B, C, G, H, I) and set of FD are F = { A → B, A → C, CG → H, CG → I, B → H}**Find out (AG)**^{+}.**Result =**{A, G}**First loop :**A → B includes B in the Result as A⊆ Result (which is AG), so Result := Result ∪ B. Hence Result = {A, G, B} A → C causes Result to become ABCG. CG → H causes the Result to become ABCGH. CG → I causes the Result to become ABCGHI. B → H causes Result to become ABCGHI.

**Second loop :**A → B causes the Result to be unchanged i.e. ABCGHI (B is already part of the Result). A → C causes Result to be unchanged. CG → H causes the Result to be unchanged. CG → I causes the Result to be unchanged. B → H causes Result to be unchanged.

At the end of the second loop, the Result does not change so exit from the loop.

**(AG)**^{+}= {A, B, C, G, H, I}**Conclusion:**AG is a super key as all other attributes can be determined by it. - Check whether Fd exists :
**Example :**

Let R = (A, B, C, G, H, I) and set of FD are F = { A →B, A → C, CG → H, CG → I, B → H}**Check HB → I holds or not****Result =**{H, B}**First loop :**In A → B as A ⊆ Result (which is HB) so nothing will be added. In A → C nothing added. CG → H (CG ⊆ Result (which is HB) so nothing added) CG → I nothing added. B → H nothing added.

At the end of the first loop, the Result does not change so exit from the loop.

**Conclusion:**HB → I does not hold. - An alternate way to find Closure of FDs (F
^{+}).**Example :**

Given a relation R (A, B, C, D, E, F) and set of FDs F: {A → BC, E → CF, B → E, CD → EF}**Find out closure of {A, B}**^{+}**Step-1: Result = AB****Step-2: First loop**Result = ABC for A → BC, A ⊆ Result so Result = Result ∪ BC. Result = ABC for E→ CF, E ∉ Result so Result = Result. Result = ABCE for B → E, B ⊆Result so Result = Result ∪ E. Result = ABCE for CD → EF, CD ∉ Result so Result = Result.

The Result before step2 is AB and after step 2 is ABCE which is different so repeat the same as step 2.

**Step-3: Second loop**Result = ABCE for A → BC, A ⊆ Result so Result = Result ∪ BC. Result = ABCEF for E → CF, E ⊆ Result so Result = Result ∪ CF. Result = ABCEF for B → E, B ⊆ Result so Result = Result ∪ E. Result = ABCEF for CD → EF, CD ∉ Result so Result = Result.

The Result before step 3 is ABCE and that after step 3 is ABCEF which is different, so repeat the same as step 3.

**Step-4: Third loop**Result = ABCEF for A → BC, A ⊆ Result so Result = Result ∪ BC. Result = ABCEF for E → CF, E ⊆ Result so Result = Result ∪ CF. Result = ABCEF for B → E, B ⊆ Result so Result = Result ∪ E. Result = ABCEF for CD → EF, CD ∉ Result so Result = Result.

The Result before step4 is ABCEF and after step 3 is ABCEF which is the same so stop.

**So Closure of {A, B}**^{+}is {A, B, C, E, F}.**Conclusion:**For every attribute/set of attributes we can find closure. This Results in F^{+}.Attention reader! Don’t stop learning now. Get hold of all the important CS Theory concepts for SDE interviews with the

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