Append Operation on Vectors in R Programming

Vectors in R programming is a basic object consisting sequence of homogenous elements. It can be integer, logical, double, character, complex or raw. In this article, let us discuss different methods to concatenate/append values to a vector in R programming. Values can be appended/concatenated in a vector using 2 methods:

  • c() function
  • append() function

Append operation using c() function

c() function is a generic function that combines data into a vector or a list.

Syntax: c(…)

Parameters:
…: represents objects to be concatenated

To know about more optional parameters, use below command in console:



help("c")

Example 1:

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# Create a vector
x <- 1:5
n <- 6:10
  
# Append using c() function
y <- c(x, n)
  
# Print resultant vector
print(y)

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Output:

 [1]  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10

Example 2:

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# Create vector
x <- 1:5
n <- letters[1:5]
  
# Append
y <- c(x, n)
  
# Print resultant vector
print(y)
  
# Print type of resultant vector
typeof(y)
  
# Print type of other vectors
typeof(x)
typeof(n)

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Output:

[1] "1" "2" "3" "4" "5" "a" "b" "c" "d" "e"
[1] "character"
[1] "integer"
[1] "character"

Append operation using append() function

append() function in R is used for merging vectors or adding more elements to a vector.

Syntax: append(x, values)

Parameters:
x: represents a vector to which values has to be appended to
values: represents the values which has to be appended in the vector

Example 1:

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# Create a vector
x <- 1:5
  
# Append using append() function
x <- append(x, 6:10)
  
# Print resultant vector
print(x)

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Output:

[1]  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10

Example 2:

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# Create a vector
x <- 1:5
y <- letters[1:5]
  
# Append using append() function
x <- append(x, values = y)
  
# Print resultant vector
print(x)

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Output:

[1] "1" "2" "3" "4" "5" "a" "b" "c" "d" "e"



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