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Aluminium Oxide Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 28 Apr, 2022
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Aluminum oxide is a chemical substance made up of atoms of aluminum and oxygen. Aluminum loses three electrons in the chemical process, whereas oxygen gains two. It is frequently referred to as alumina. Alpha-Alumina, alumina, alundum, or alkoxide are other names for it. Aluminum oxide is a white, odorless amorphous material. Because of its multiple beneficial properties, the chemical contributes significantly to a wide range of life-extension and social welfare applications. It can also be found in bauxite. 

Aluminum Oxide Formula

Aluminum oxide may be found in nature as corundum, rubies, sapphires, and emeralds. It’s an alkaline earth compound that interacts with both acids and bases. It appears white and exists as a solid.
It has no odor and is insoluble in water. This molecule is most commonly found in crystalline form, which is known as -aluminum oxide or corundum. Because of its hardness, it is usually utilized as an abrasive and in cutting tools. 

The chemical formula for Aluminium oxide is Al2O3  which is an inorganic chemical reagent .

Structure of Aluminium oxide 

Two Aluminium atoms bond with two oxygen atoms each to form the structure of aluminum oxide, which means it has three oxygen atoms. 


Physical Properties of Aluminium Oxide 

  1. Aluminum oxide is a whitish solid.
  2. It is insoluble in water and as well as in all other solvents.
  3. Although aluminum oxide is an electrical insulator, it exhibits thermal conductivity in ceramic material.
  4. Aluminum oxide has a relatively high melting point (2345K) and boiling point (3250K).
  5. Aluminum oxide has a density of 3.987g/cm3

Chemical Properties of Aluminium Oxide 

  • Sodium aluminate and water are formed when aluminum oxide interacts with sodium hydroxide. This reaction occurs at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1100°C. This reaction, in which aluminum oxide serves as an acid, produces salt and water. 

Al2O3 + 2NaOH → 2NaAlO2 + H2O

  • Metal oxides are typically basic in nature, although aluminum oxide is amphoteric. As a consequence, it functions as both an acid and a base. In this case, it does not act as an acid but acts as a base. 

Al2O3 + H2SO4 → Al2(SO4)3 + H2O  

This is known as a neutralization reaction. 

  • Aluminum oxide includes oxide ions therefore it interacts with acids similarly to sodium or magnesium oxides. Aluminum chloride solution is formed when aluminum oxide reacts with hot dilute hydrochloric acid. 

Al2O3 + 6HCl → 2AlCl3 + 3H2

Uses of Aluminium Oxide 

  • Aluminum oxide is mostly utilized as an abrasive due to its hardness and strength. Aluminum oxide is used as a replacement for an industrial diamond in the manufacturing of sandpaper, cutting tools, and other products.
  • It is most commonly utilized as a ceramic material.
  • It is used as a plastic filler.
  • It is often seen as an ingredient in sunscreen, lipstick, blush, and nail paint.
  • It is used in the manufacturing of glass. and Aluminosilicate glass is a common glass that contains aluminum oxide. Aluminosilicate glass comprises 5–10% of Aluminium oxide.
  • It is utilized as a catalyst in various industrial processes. For example, the Aluminium oxide is used as a catalyst in the Claus process, which converts hydrogen sulfide waste into elemental sulfur.
  • Aluminum oxide can be used to eliminate water from gas streams.
  • Aluminum oxide flakes are used in paints to add a reflecting or decorative look.
  • Aluminum oxide is utilized as an electrical insulator in integrated circuits.
  • Transparent aluminum oxide is used in sodium vapor lamps and compact fluorescent lights. 

Sample Questions 

Question 1: Is Aluminum Oxide Harmful to Humans?


When compared to other chemicals, aluminium oxide is less hazardous. However, when concentrations increase, the toxicity increases. 

Question 2: What is the purpose of aluminum oxide?


Aluminium oxide is a high-quality ceramic oxide with several uses in the production of adsorbents and catalysts. It is also utilised in the aerospace industry and in the production of a variety of economically important chemicals. 

Question 3: What Is aluminum oxide acidic or basic?


Aluminium(III) oxide is an amphoteric metal oxide, which means that it has both acidic and basic properties. The acidic or basic character of Al2O3 is determined by the nature of the other reactant in the chemical process. 

Question 4:  Which liquids react with aluminum?


Aluminium chloride and hydrogen gas are formed when aluminium combines with dilute hydrochloric acid. At room temperature, chlorine and liquid bromine react with aluminium. 

Question 5: Why is it that aluminum cannot react with water?


Aluminum metal rapidly forms a thin coating of aluminium oxide a few millimetres thick, which prevents it from reacting with water. When this layer corrodes, a reaction occurs, resulting in the release of extremely combustible hydrogen gas. 

Question 6: Is aluminum oxide a gas?


Al2O is commonly found as a gas since the solid state is not stable at room temperature and is only stable between 1050 and 1600°C. Aluminium(I) oxide is produced by boiling Al and Al2O3 in a vacuum in the presence of SiO2 and C, and afterwards condensing the products. 

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