An organ is removed from one body and implanted in the body of the recipient during an organ transplant operation to replace a damaged or absent organ. Organs may be moved from a donor site to another location or the donor and recipient may be present at the same spot, there are four types of transplantation:
- Xenograft and xenotransplantation.
- Allograft and allotransplantation.
- Domino transplants.
- ABO-incompatible transplants.
- Transplantation in obese individuals.
How is transplantation done?
An organ, piece of tissue, or collection of cells is transplanted when it is physically removed from one person (the donor) and placed into another (the recipient or host), or when it is relocated from one location to another within the same person. Liver transplants, for example, can save lives.
An allograft is a transplant of tissue and organ in one species to another that are the same and are not identical twins or born by the same mother.
Allograft is a term that is used for the transplant of an unrelated kidney. it is also known as an allogeneic graft or homograft, some examples are given below; anterior tibialis tendon, frozen femoral head, freeze-dried bone chips, DBM putty, acellular dermis, and amniotic membrane.
Allografts are mainly used in the transplant of skin, hearts, cornea, heart, liver, kidney, bone marrow, etc. And these transplants come from relatives. In allograft, they are the addition of allograft they are three types of tissue transplants. first An isograft is a technique in which tissue is transplanted in genetically identical donors like twins .second An autograft is another technique in which tissue is transplanted from one site to another site on a patient like skin graft after the removal of melanomas and non-nonmelanomas skin cancer. And the third xenograft is the transplant of two different species.
A skin graft is a technique that takes healthy skin from one place of the body to repair heal and a large wound or burn in other places. the two most widespread techniques are used;
- Split thickness skin graft (STSG), removes the upper layer (epidermis) and part of the middle layer (dermis) of the skin.
- Full-thickness skin graft (FTSG), which transfers the entire dermis so that the donor site must be surgically closed. The most common site used in techniques for skin grafts is the inner thigh, forearm, and leg upper arm.
What is Allograft used for?
Allografts are used in a number of producers to save patient life, repair limbs, and improve the patient life.
- Bone, tendons, and ligaments can be used in orthopedics, neurosurgery, and also used in surgery or plastic surgery.
- Allografts are used in heart transplants Heart valves and blood vessels.
- Skin can be used to repair wounds and burns.
- Corneas can restore vision to a person whose cornea is damaged and failed.
When the recipient’s immune system assaults the donated graft and starts destroying the transplanted tissue or organ, graft rejection takes place The immune response is usually triggered by the presence of the donor’s own unique set of HLA proteins, which the recipient’s immune system will identify as foreign. There are some causes of which graft rejection.
Hyperacute rejection is usually caused by specific antibodies against the graft and occurs within a minute or an hour after grafting. Acute rejection can be brought on by certain lymphocytes in the recipient that detect HLA antigens in the tissue or organ transplanted days or weeks after transplantation.
A heart transplant is a technique in which the diseased heart is removed and transplanted. A healthy heart because of the immense, there is the more complexity and difficulty, and finding the appropriate donor for the heart transplant is performed in the patient’s end-last stage of heart failure and heart damage who can survive on their own heart for a few weeks or a few months. In a few cases, the transplanted heart is taken from those people who have irreversible brain damage and have been declared legally dead but whose organs have been kept artificially viable for the purposes of transplant.
Procedure of Allotransplant
It is an allogeneic transplant, stem cells are those cells that are collected from the matching donor and transplanted into the other patient to cure the disease and restore the patient life or immune system. An allogeneic stem cell transplant is different from an autologous stem cell transplant, which uses the own cells from the patient’s own body.
They are the potential causes of allograft and disease transmission are;
- Failure to follow tissue-handling guidelines
- Fraudulent procurement practices.
- Lack of sterilization.
- Foreign body effects;
- Harvest/preparation contamination.
Other Types of Transplant
There are two different types of transplants:
- Autologous– Autologous transplants. use your own body cells or bone marrow to heal the diseases.
- Allogeneic– Allogeneic transplants use a donor’s blood cells or bone marrow. A syngeneic allogeneic transplant uses cells or bone marrow from the person’s identical twin.
FAQs on Allograft
Question 1: What is allograft in surgery?
An allograft is a tissue in which transplanted from one person to the other person. The prefix allo comes from the Greek word meaning “other” (If tissue is moved from one place to the other in your own body, it is called an autograft) more than 1 million allografts are transplanted each year.
Question 2: What is an example of the allograft?
An allograft is different from the autograft, which utilizes tissues from the same individual’s body and is therefore genetically identical. Examples of human allografts include; anterior tibialis tendon, frozen femoral hand, dried bone chips, DBM putty, acellular dermis, and amniotic membrane.
Question 3: Can your body reject allograft?
In the short the answer at this time is no, the allograft will not fail because of the immune response such as what is seen with organ transplant. it may fail for the other reason but not from an overt immunological rejection.
Question 4: When is an allograft used?
The use of allograft skin is beneficial in the treatment of large burns with or without concurrent autografts. Allograft skin is used as a temporary dressing while awaiting the healing of autograft donor sites between sessions of harvesting (Herndon and Parks, 1986).
Question 5: What is the success rate of a heart transplant?
The worldwide heart transplant survival rate is greater than 85 percent after one year and 9 percent after 5 years for adults, which is excellent when compared to the natural course of end-stage heart failure. The first year after surgery is the most important in regard to heart transplant survival rate.
Question 6: What is the risk of death during a heart transplant?
Heart transplantation has a high early mortality- 15-20% of recipients die within a year of the operation. Thereafter the death rate is constant, at about 4% a year for the next 18 years, so that 50% of patients can expect to be alive after 10 years and 15% after 20 years.
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