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Network cables are used in communication systems around the world. Using the correct cable will ensure the best performance of the network. Therefore, whether the correct cable is selected according to the requirements of the system will play a crucial role in whether the installed communication system can play an ideal use effect.

Twisted Pair : The pair of twisted is that the simplest transmission medium. it consists of 1 or more pairs of electrical son arranged spiral. The twisted pairs could also be shielded, metal sheath surrounding completely metallic pairs or unshielded. They can also be “unscreened”. Metal cables are particularly suitable for the transmission of data on short distances. If the length of the wire is little, a couple of hundred meters to many kilometers, speeds of several megabits per second are often achieved without an unacceptable error rate. Over shorter distances, can be obtained without difficulty speeds of several tens of megabits per second. On even short distances, it is easily reached several hundred megabits per second.

Types of Twisted Pair : There are two types of twisted pairs are as follows: Unshielded twisted pair (UTP), and Shielded twisted pair (STP) Let’s discuss one by one.

• It consists of color-coded copper wires but does not include any foil or braiding as insulator to protect against interference.
• Wire pairs within each cable have varying amounts of twists per foot to produce cancellation.
• There are different categories of UTP.
• The following table shows the UTP categories, the no. of pairs in each, and the grade of cable each uses, and how they are implemented.
• STP is formed from pairs of copper wires that are twisted together.
• The pairs are covered during a foil or braided mesh, also as outer PVC jacket.
• This prevent penetration of electromagnetic noise and eliminate cross talk.
• This shielding must be grounded to stop the foil or braided mesh from becoming a magnet for electricity.

Advantages of Twisted pair cable :

• It are often wont to carry both analog and digital data.
• It’s relatively easy to implement and terminate.
• It is the smallest amount expensive media of transmission for brief distances.
• If portion of a twisted pair cable is broken it doesn’t effect the whole network.
• Less vulnerable to electrical interference caused by nearby equipment or wires.
• It cause interference themselves.
• Best performance in short distances.
• High-cost performance
• The twisted-pair cable is low in weight.
• Twisted pair cable is flexible to use
• Twisted Pair cable is easy to connect.
• These cable are suitable for Data and voice infrastructure.

Disadvantages of Twisted pair cable :

• It result signal distortion in a very effective manner.
• Attenuation is very high.
• It supports 10 mbps upto a distance of 100 meters on a 10BASE-T which are considered to be low bandwidth.
• It provides poor security and is relatively easy to tap.
• As they a thin so can be easily breakable.
• Low durability (must be maintained regularly).
• Susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI).
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