Satellite communication is an electronic communication package placed in an orbit. Its prime objective is to initiate or assist through space. It has made a major contribution to the pattern of international communication.
The satellite microwave is basically a microwave relay station in space. It uses a geosynchronous satellite to relay the radio signal transmitted from the ground station. For communication signals, these satellites act as relay stations. From the earth station, the satellite accepts data/signals, amplifies them, and re-transmit them to another earth station. Data can be transmitted to the other side of the earth using such a setup in only one step. Most companies that use satellite microwave lease access to the satellites for an exorbitant fee.
Satellite communication has a number of advantages:
- Through satellite transmission, coverage over geographical area is quite large mainly for sparsely populated areas.
- High bandwidth.
- Wireless and mobile communication applications can be easily established by satellite communication independent of location.
- It is used in wide variety of applications such as global mobile communication, private business networks, Long distance telephone transmission, weather forecasting, radio/TV signal broadcasting, gathering intelligence in military, navigation of ships and air crafts, connecting remote areas, television distribution etc.
- Security in satellite transmission is usually provided by the coding and decoding equipment.
- Service from one single provider is easy to obtain and uniform service is available.
- Over long distances, it can be cheaper.
- The laying and maintenance is easy and cheap in satellite communication therefore it is best alterative.
- During critical condition, each Earth Station may be removed relatively quickly from a location and reinstalled somewhere else.
- Ground station sites are easy to install and maintain.
- Design, development, investment and insurance of satellite requires higher cost.
- To reach the satellite from Earth, time can vary between 270 milliseconds and return again to 320 milliseconds. This propagation delay can cause an echo over telephone connections
- Satellites are not easy to repair and maintain.
- Some circumstances like weather or sunspots affect the satellite’s signal and can cause interference and make proper operation of the satellite very difficult.
- It requires to be monitored and controlled on regular periods so that it remains in the orbit, once it has been launched.
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