Access control is a method of limiting access to a system or to physical or virtual resources. It is a process by which users can access and are granted certain prerogative to systems, resources or information. Access control is a security technique that has control over who can view different aspects, what can be viewed and who can use resources in a computing environment. It is a fundamental concept in security that reduces risk to the business or organization.
To establish a secure system, electronic access control systems are used that depend on user credentials, access card readers, auditing and reports to track employee access to restricted business locations and areas. These systems include access control panels to prohibit entry to sensitive areas like alarms and lock down areas to prevent unauthorized access or operations.
Access control systems perform identification, authentication, and authorization of users and entities by evaluating required login credentials that may include passwords, pins, bio-metric scans or other authentication factors. There is multi-factor authentication which requires two or more authentication factors which is often an important part of the layered defense to protect access control systems.
- Password or PIN
- Bio-metric measurement (fingerprint & ratina scan)
- Card or Key
Different access control models are used depending on the compliance requirements and the security levels of information technology that is to be protected. Basically access control is of 2 types:
- Physical Access Control:
Physical access control restricts entry to campuses, buildings, rooms and physical IT assets.
- Logical Access Control:
Logical access control limits connections to computer networks, system files and data.
Access Control Models:
- Attribute-based Access Control (ABAC):
In this model, access is granted or declined by evaluating a set of rules, policies, and relationships using the attributes of users, systems and environmental conditions.
- Discretionary Access Control (DAC):
In DAC, the owner of data determines who can access specific resources.
- History-Based Access Control (HBAC):
Access is granted or declined by evaluating the history of activities of the inquiring party that includes behavior, the time between requests and content of requests.
- Identity-Based Access Control (IBAC):
By using this model network administrators can more effectively manage activity and access based on individual requirements.
- Mandatory Access Control (MAC):
A control model in which access rights are regulated by a central authority based on multiple levels of security. Security Enhanced Linux is implemented using MAC on the Linux operating system.
- Organization-Based Access control (OrBAC):
This model allows the policy designer to define a security policy independently of the implementation.
- Role-Based Access Control (RBAC):
RBAC allows access based on the job title. RBAC eliminates discretion on a large scale when providing access to objects. For example, there should not be permissions for human resources specialist to create network accounts.
- Rule-Based Access Control (RAC):
RAC method is largely context based. Example of this would be only allowing students to use the labs during a certain time of day.
Attention reader! Don’t stop learning now. Get hold of all the important CS Theory concepts for SDE interviews with the CS Theory Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready.
- Access Control Tactics in Computer Networks
- Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Network
- Multiple Access Protocols in Computer Network
- Basic Network Attacks in Computer Network
- Difference between Flow Control and Congestion Control
- Difference between Flow Control and Error Control
- Context based Access Control (CBAC)
- Role-based Access Control
- Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN)
- Hybrid Fiber Coaxial (HFC) Access Network Management
- Congestion Control in Computer Networks
- Congestion Control techniques in Computer Networks
- Difference between Storage Area Network (SAN) and Network Attached Storage (NAS)
- Differences between Wireless Adhoc Network and Wireless Sensor Network
- Difference between Next Generation Network and Traditional Network
- Difference between Software Defined Network and Traditional Network
- Computer Network | Leaky bucket algorithm
- HMAC Algorithm in Computer Network
- Introduction of Firewall in Computer Network
- Circuit Switching in Computer Network
If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to firstname.lastname@example.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.
Please Improve this article if you find anything incorrect by clicking on the "Improve Article" button below.
Improved By : Akanksha_Rai