A Product Array Puzzle

Given an array arr[] of n integers, construct a Product Array prod[] (of same size) such that prod[i] is equal to the product of all the elements of arr[] except arr[i]. Solve it without division operator and in O(n).

Example :
arr[] = {10, 3, 5, 6, 2}
prod[] = {180, 600, 360, 300, 900}

Algorithm:
1) Construct a temporary array left[] such that left[i] contains product of all elements on left of arr[i] excluding arr[i].
2) Construct another temporary array right[] such that right[i] contains product of all elements on on right of arr[i] excluding arr[i].
3) To get prod[], multiply left[] and right[].

Implementation:

C++

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// C++ implementation of above approach
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
  
/* Function to print product array for a given array 
arr[] of size n */
void productArray(int arr[], int n) 
    /* Allocate memory for temporary arrays left[] and right[] */
    int *left = new int[sizeof(int)*n]; 
    int *right = new int[sizeof(int)*n];
      
    /* Allocate memory for the product array */
    int *prod = new int[sizeof(int)*n];
      
    int i, j; 
      
    /* Left most element of left array is always 1 */
    left[0] = 1; 
      
    /* Rightmost most element of right array is always 1 */
    right[n - 1] = 1; 
      
    /* Construct the left array */
    for(i = 1; i < n; i++) 
        left[i] = arr[i - 1] * left[i - 1]; 
      
    /* Construct the right array */
    for(j = n - 2; j >= 0; j--) 
        right[j] = arr[j + 1] * right[j + 1]; 
      
    /* Construct the product array using 
        left[] and right[] */
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) 
        prod[i] = left[i] * right[i]; 
      
    /* print the constructed prod array */
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) 
        cout << prod[i] << " "
      
    return
  
/* Driver code*/
int main() 
    int arr[] = {10, 3, 5, 6, 2}; 
    int n = sizeof(arr)/sizeof(arr[0]); 
    cout << "The product array is: \n"
    productArray(arr, n); 
  
// This is code is contributed by rathbhupendra

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C

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#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
  
/* Function to print product array for a given array
 arr[] of size n */
void productArray(int arr[], int n)
{
  /* Allocate memory for temporary arrays left[] and right[] */
  int *left = (int *)malloc(sizeof(int)*n);
  int *right = (int *)malloc(sizeof(int)*n);
  
  /* Allocate memory for the product array */
  int *prod = (int *)malloc(sizeof(int)*n);
  
  int i, j;
  
  /* Left most element of left array is always 1 */
  left[0] = 1;
  
  /* Rightmost most element of right array is always 1 */
  right[n-1] = 1;
  
  /* Construct the left array */
  for(i = 1; i < n; i++)
    left[i] = arr[i-1]*left[i-1];
  
  /* Construct the right array */
  for(j = n-2; j >=0; j--)
    right[j] = arr[j+1]*right[j+1];
  
  /* Construct the product array using
    left[] and right[] */
  for (i=0; i<n; i++)
    prod[i] = left[i] * right[i];
  
  /* print the constructed prod array */
  for (i=0; i<n; i++)
    printf("%d ", prod[i]);
  
  return;
}
  
/* Driver program to test above functions */
int main()
{
  int arr[] = {10, 3, 5, 6, 2};
  int n = sizeof(arr)/sizeof(arr[0]);
  printf("The product array is: n");
  productArray(arr, n);
  getchar();
}

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Java

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class ProductArray 
{
    /* Function to print product array for a given array
       arr[] of size n */
    void productArray(int arr[], int n) 
    {
        // Initialize memory to all arrays
        int left[] = new int[n];
        int right[] = new int[n];
        int prod[] = new int[n];
  
        int i, j;
  
        /* Left most element of left array is always 1 */
        left[0] = 1;
  
        /* Rightmost most element of right array is always 1 */
        right[n - 1] = 1;
  
        /* Construct the left array */
        for (i = 1; i < n; i++)
            left[i] = arr[i - 1] * left[i - 1];
  
        /* Construct the right array */
        for (j = n - 2; j >= 0; j--)
            right[j] = arr[j + 1] * right[j + 1];
  
        /* Construct the product array using
           left[] and right[] */
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
            prod[i] = left[i] * right[i];
  
        /* print the constructed prod array */
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
            System.out.print(prod[i] + " ");
  
        return;
    }
  
    /* Driver program to test the aboe function */
    public static void main(String[] args) 
    {
        ProductArray pa = new ProductArray();
        int arr[] = {10, 3, 5, 6, 2};
        int n = arr.length;
        System.out.println("The product array is : ");
        pa.productArray(arr, n);
    }
}
  
// This code has been contributed by Mayank Jaiswal

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Python3

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# Python implementation of above approach
  
# Function to print product array for a given array
# arr[] of size n
  
  
def productArray(arr, n):
        # Allocate memory for temporary arrays left[] and right[]
    left = [0]*n
    right = [0]*n
  
    # Allocate memory for the product array
    prod = [0]*n
  
    # Left most element of left array is always 1
    left[0] = 1
  
    # Rightmost most element of right array is always 1
    right[n - 1] = 1
  
    # Construct the left array
    for i in range(1, n):
        left[i] = arr[i - 1] * left[i - 1]
  
    # Construct the right array
    for j in range(n-2, -1, -1):
        right[j] = arr[j + 1] * right[j + 1]
  
    # Construct the product array using
    #   left[] and right[]
    for i in range(n):
        prod[i] = left[i] * right[i]
  
    # print the constructed prod array
    for i in range(n):
        print(prod[i], end=' ')
  
  
# Driver code
arr = [10, 3, 5, 6, 2]
n = len(arr)
print("The product array is:")
productArray(arr, n)
  
# This code is contributed by ankush_953

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C#

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using System;
  
class GFG {
      
    /* Function to print product array
    for a given array arr[] of size n */
    static void productArray(int []arr, int n) 
    {
          
        // Initialize memory to all arrays
        int []left = new int[n];
        int []right = new int[n];
        int []prod = new int[n];
  
        int i, j;
  
        /* Left most element of left array 
        is always 1 */
        left[0] = 1;
  
        /* Rightmost most element of right
        array is always 1 */
        right[n - 1] = 1;
  
        /* Construct the left array */
        for (i = 1; i < n; i++)
            left[i] = arr[i - 1] * left[i - 1];
  
        /* Construct the right array */
        for (j = n - 2; j >= 0; j--)
            right[j] = arr[j + 1] * right[j + 1];
  
        /* Construct the product array using
        left[] and right[] */
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
            prod[i] = left[i] * right[i];
  
        /* print the constructed prod array */
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
        Console.Write(prod[i] + " ");
  
        return;
    }
  
    /* Driver program to test the aboe function */
    public static void Main() 
    {
        int []arr = {10, 3, 5, 6, 2};
        int n = arr.Length;
        Console.Write("The product array is : ");
          
        productArray(arr, n);
    }
}
  
// This code is contributed by nitin mittal.

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PHP

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<?php
// Function to print product 
// array for a given array
// arr[] of size n
function productArray($arr, $n
{
    // Initialize memory 
    // to all arrays
    $left = array();
    $right = array();
    $prod = array();
  
    $i; $j;
  
    // Left most element of 
    // left array is always 1
    $left[0] = 1;
  
    // Rightmost most element of 
    // right array is always 1
    $right[$n - 1] = 1;
  
    // Construct the left array
    for ($i = 1; $i < $n; $i++)
        $left[$i] = $arr[$i - 1] * 
                    $left[$i - 1];
  
    // Construct the right array
    for ($j = $n - 2; $j >= 0; $j--)
        $right[$j] = $arr[$j + 1] * 
                     $right[$j + 1];
  
    // Construct the product array 
    // using left[] and right[]
    for ($i = 0; $i < $n; $i++)
        $prod[$i] = $left[$i] * 
                    $right[$i];
  
    // print the constructed prod array
    for ($i = 0; $i < $n; $i++)
        echo $prod[$i] , " ";
  
    return;
}
  
// Driver Code
$arr = array(10, 3, 5, 6, 2);
$n = count($arr);
echo "The product array is : \n";
productArray($arr, $n);
  
// This code has been contributed by anuj_67.
?>

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Output :

The product array is : 
180 600 360 300 900 

Time Complexity: O(n)
Space Complexity: O(n)
Auxiliary Space: O(n)

The above method can be optimized to work in space complexity O(1). Thanks to Dileep for suggesting the below solution.

C++

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// C++ implementation of above approach 
#include <bits/stdc++.h> 
using namespace std; 
  
/* Function to print product array 
for a given array arr[] of size n */
void productArray(int arr[], int n) 
    int i, temp = 1; 
      
    /* Allocate memory for the product array */
    int *prod = new int[(sizeof(int) * n)]; 
      
    /* Initialize the product array as 1 */
    memset(prod, 1, n); 
      
    /* In this loop, temp variable contains product of 
       elements on left side excluding arr[i] */
    for(i = 0; i < n; i++) 
    
        prod[i] = temp; 
        temp *= arr[i]; 
    
      
    /* Initialize temp to 1 
    for product on right side */
    temp = 1; 
      
    /* In this loop, temp variable contains product of 
       elements on right side excluding arr[i] */
    for(i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--) 
    
        prod[i] *= temp; 
        temp *= arr[i]; 
    
      
    /* print the constructed prod array */
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) 
        cout << prod[i] << " "
      
    return
  
  
// Driver Code
int main() 
    int arr[] = {10, 3, 5, 6, 2}; 
    int n = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]); 
    cout << "The product array is: \n"
    productArray(arr, n); 
  
// This code is contributed by rathbhupendra

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C

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void productArray(int arr[], int n)
{
  int i, temp = 1;
  
  /* Allocate memory for the product array */
  int *prod = (int *)malloc(sizeof(int)*n);
  
  /* Initialize the product array as 1 */
  memset(prod, 1, n);
  
  /* In this loop, temp variable contains product of
    elements on left side excluding arr[i] */
  for(i=0; i<n; i++)
  {
    prod[i] = temp;
    temp *= arr[i];
  }
  
  /* Initialize temp to 1 for product on right side */
  temp = 1;
  
  /* In this loop, temp variable contains product of
    elements on right side excluding arr[i] */
  for(i= n-1; i>=0; i--)
  {
    prod[i] *= temp;
    temp *= arr[i];
  }
  
  /* print the constructed prod array */
  for (i=0; i<n; i++)
    printf("%d ", prod[i]);
  
  return;
}

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Java

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class ProductArray 
{
    void productArray(int arr[], int n) 
    {
        int i, temp = 1;
          
        /* Allocate memory for the product array */
        int prod[] = new int[n];
  
        /* Initialize the product array as 1 */
        for(int j=0;j<n;j++)
            prod[j]=1;
  
        /* In this loop, temp variable contains product of
           elements on left side excluding arr[i] */
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++) 
        {
            prod[i] = temp;
            temp *= arr[i];
        }
  
        /* Initialize temp to 1 for product on right side */
        temp = 1;
  
        /* In this loop, temp variable contains product of
           elements on right side excluding arr[i] */
        for (i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--) 
        {
            prod[i] *= temp;
            temp *= arr[i];
        }
  
        /* print the constructed prod array */
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
            System.out.print(prod[i] + " ");
  
        return;
    }
  
    /* Driver program to test above functions */
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        ProductArray pa = new ProductArray();
        int arr[] = {10, 3, 5, 6, 2};
        int n = arr.length;
        System.out.println("The product array is : ");
        pa.productArray(arr, n);
    }
}
  
// This code has been contributed by Mayank Jaiswal

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Python3

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# Python3 program for A Product Array Puzzle
def productArray(arr, n):
  
    i, temp = 1, 1
  
    # Allocate memory for the product array 
    prod = [1 for i in range(n)]
  
    # Initialize the product array as 1 
  
    # In this loop, temp variable contains product of
    # elements on left side excluding arr[i] 
    for i in range(n):
        prod[i] = temp
        temp *= arr[i]
  
    # Initialize temp to 1 for product on right side 
    temp = 1
  
    # In this loop, temp variable contains product of
    # elements on right side excluding arr[i] 
    for i in range(n - 1, -1, -1):
        prod[i] *= temp
        temp *= arr[i]
  
    # Print the constructed prod array 
    for i in range(n):
        print(prod[i], end = " ")
  
    return
  
# Driver Code
arr = [10, 3, 5, 6, 2]
n = len(arr)
print("The product array is: n")
productArray(arr, n)
  
# This code is contributed by mohit kumar

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C#

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using System;
  
class GFG {
      
    static void productArray(int []arr, int n) 
    {
        int i, temp = 1;
          
        /* Allocate memory for the product
        array */
        int []prod = new int[n];
  
        /* Initialize the product array as 1 */
        for(int j = 0; j < n; j++)
            prod[j] = 1;
  
        /* In this loop, temp variable contains
        product of elements on left side
        excluding arr[i] */
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++) 
        {
            prod[i] = temp;
            temp *= arr[i];
        }
  
        /* Initialize temp to 1 for product on 
        right side */
        temp = 1;
  
        /* In this loop, temp variable contains
        product of elements on right side 
        excluding arr[i] */
        for (i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--) 
        {
            prod[i] *= temp;
            temp *= arr[i];
        }
  
        /* print the constructed prod array */
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
            Console.Write(prod[i] + " ");
  
        return;
    }
  
    /* Driver program to test above functions */
    public static void Main()
    {
        int []arr = {10, 3, 5, 6, 2};
        int n = arr.Length;
        Console.WriteLine("The product array is : ");
          
        productArray(arr, n);
    }
}
  
// This code is contributed by nitin mittal.

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PHP

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<?php
// PHP program for 
// A Product Array Puzzle
      
function productArray($arr, $n
    {
        $i; $temp = 1;
          
        /* Allocate memory for 
           the productarray */
        $prod = array();
  
        /* Initialize the product 
           array as 1 */
        for( $j = 0; $j < $n; $j++)
            $prod[$j] = 1;
  
        /* In this loop, temp 
           variable contains
           product of elements
           on left side
           excluding arr[i] */
        for ($i = 0; $i < $n; $i++) 
        {
            $prod[$i] = $temp;
            $temp *= $arr[$i];
        }
  
        /* Initialize temp to 1 
           for product on right
           side */
        $temp = 1;
  
        /* In this loop, temp 
           variable contains
           product of elements 
           on right side 
           excluding arr[i] */
        for ($i = $n - 1; $i >= 0; $i--) 
        {
            $prod[$i] *= $temp;
            $temp *= $arr[$i];
        }
  
        /* print the constructed
           prod array */
        for ($i = 0; $i < $n; $i++)
            echo $prod[$i] , " ";
  
        return;
    }
  
        // Driver Code    
        $arr = array(10, 3, 5, 6, 2);
        $n = count($arr);
        echo "The product array is : \n";
        productArray($arr, $n);
      
// This code is contributed by anuj_67.
?>

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Output :

The product array is : 
180 600 360 300 900 

Time Complexity: O(n)
Space Complexity: O(n)
Auxiliary Space: O(1)


A product array puzzle | Set 2 (O(1) Space)

Related Problem :
Construct an Array from XOR of all elements of array except element at same index

Please write comments if you find the above code/algorithm incorrect, or find better ways to solve the same problem.



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