Internet of Things (IoT) includes large number of smart devices connected to a broad internet network with the help of various networking technologies. Mostly these technologies are wireless in manner. This makes the structure more complex and difficult to manage. Therefore, architecture is required.
An architecture is structure for specification of network’s physical components and their functional organization and configuration, its operational principles and procedures, as well as data formats used in its operation.
The development of IoT depends on the technologies used, application areas, and business aspects. There are various IoT architectures are available for IoT devices. However, the “5 Layer Architecture is considered as the best-proposed architecture of IoT.”
5 Layer Architecture of IoT :
When project work is done with various cutting edge technologies and broad application area, 5 layer architecture is considered as best. 5 Layer model can be considered as an extension to the basic architecture of IoT because it has two additional layers to the basic model.
5 Layer Architecture of Internet of Things
- Perception Layer :
This is the first layer of IoT architecture. In the perception layer, number of sensors and actuators are used to gather useful information like temperature, moisture content, intruder detection, sounds, etc. The main function of this layer is to get information from surroundings and to pass data to another layer so that some actions can be done based on that information.
- Network Layer :
As the name suggests, it is the connecting layer between perception and middleware layer. It gets data from perception layer and passes data to middleware layer using networking technologies like 3G, 4G, UTMS, WiFI, infrared, etc. This is also called communication layer because it is responsible for communication between perception and middleware layer. All the transfer of data done securely keeping the obtained data confidential.
- Middleware Layer :
Middleware Layer has some advanced features like storage, computation, processing, action taking capabilities. It stores all data-set and based on the device address and name it gives appropriate data to that device. It can also take decisions based on calculations done on data-set obtained from sensors.
- Application Layer :
The application layer manages all application process based on information obtained from middleware layer. This application involves sending emails, activating alarm, security system, turn on or off a device, smartwatch, smart agriculture, etc.
- Business Layer :
The success of any device does not depend only on technologies used in it but also how it is being delivered to its consumers. Business layer does these tasks for the device. It involves making flowcharts, graphs, analysis of results, and how device can be improved, etc.
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