Given a square matrix of order n*n, find the maximum and minimum from the matrix given.

Examples:

Input : arr[][] = {5, 4, 9, 2, 0, 6, 3, 1, 8}; Output : Maximum = 9, Minimum = 0 Input : arr[][] = {-5, 3, 2, 4}; Output : Maximum = 4, Minimum = -5

**Naive Method : **

We find maximum and minimum of matrix separately using linear search. Number of comparison needed is n^{2} for finding minimum and n^{2} for finding the maximum element. The total comparison is equal to 2n^{2}.

** Pair Comparison (Efficient method): **

Select two elements from the matrix one from the start of a row of the matrix another from the end of the same row of the matrix, compare them and next compare smaller of them to the minimum of the matrix and larger of them to the maximum of the matrix. We can see that for two elements we need 3 compare so for traversing whole of the matrix we need total of 3/2 n^{2} comparisons.

**Note : ** This is extended form of method 3 of Maximum Minimum of Array.

// C++ program for finding maximum and minimum in // a matrix. #include<bits/stdc++.h> using namespace std; #define MAX 100 // Finds maximum and minimum in arr[0..n-1][0..n-1] // using pair wise comparisons void maxMin(int arr[][MAX], int n) { int min = INT_MAX; int max = INT_MIN; // Traverses rows one by one for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) { for (int j = 0; j <= n/2; j++) { // Compare elements from beginning // and end of current row if (arr[i][j] > arr[i][n-j-1]) { if (min > arr[i][n-j-1]) min = arr[i][n-j-1]; if (max< arr[i][j]) max = arr[i][j]; } else { if (min > arr[i][j]) min = arr[i][j]; if (max< arr[i][n-j-1]) max = arr[i][n-j-1]; } } } cout << "Maximum = " << max; << ", Minimum = " << min; } /* Driver program to test above function */ int main() { int arr[MAX][MAX] = {5, 9, 11, 25, 0, 14, 21, 6, 4}; maxMin(arr, 3); return 0; }

Output:

Maximum = 25, Minimum = 0

This article is contributed by **Shivam Pradhan (anuj_charm)**. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above.