Efficient method for 2’s complement of a binary string

Given a Binary Number as string, print its 2’s complements.

2’s complement of a binary number is 1 added to the 1’s complement of the binary number. Note that 1’s complement is simply flip of given binary number.
Examples:

2's complement of "0111" is  "1001"
2's complement of "1100" is  "0100" 


We strongly recommend that you click here and practice it, before moving on to the solution.

We have discussed 1’s and 2’s complements in below post.

1’s and 2’s complement of a Binary Number.

The method discussed in above post traverses binary string twice to find 2’s complement, first finds 1’s complement, then finds 2’s complement using 1’s complement

In this post an efficient method for 2’s complement is discussed that traverses string only once. We traverse the string from last till the single 1 is not traversed and after that flip all values of string i.e. 0 to 1 and 1 to 0.

Note: Here to handle the corner case i.e. if 1 doesn’t exist in the string then just append 1 in the starting of string.

Illustration :

Input:  str = "1000100"
Output:        0111100
Explanation: Starts traversing the string from last,
we got first '1' at index 4 then just flip the bits 
of 0 to 3 indexes to make the 2's complement. 

Input:  str =  "0000"
Output:        10000
Explanation: As there is no 1 in the string so just 
append '1' at starting.

C++

// An efficient C++ program to find 2's complement
#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

// Function to find two's complement
string findTwoscomplement(string str)
{
    int n = str.length();

    // Traverse the string to get first '1' from
    // the last of string
    int i;
    for (i = n ; i >= 0 ; i--)
        if (str[i] == '1')
            break;

    // If there exists no '1' concat 1 at the
    // starting of string
    if (i == 0)
        return '1' + str;

    // Continue traversal after the position of
    // first '1'
    for (int k = i-1 ; k >= 0; k--)
    {
        //Just flip the values
        if (str[k] == '1')
            str[k] = '0';
        else
            str[k] = '1';
    }

    // return the modified string
    return str;;
}

// Driver code
int main()
{
    string str = "00000101";
    cout << findTwoscomplement(str);
    return 0;
}	          

Java

// An efficient Java program to find 2's complement

class Test
{
	// Method to find two's complement
	static String findTwoscomplement(StringBuffer str)
	{
	    int n = str.length();
	 
	    // Traverse the string to get first '1' from
	    // the last of string
	    int i;
	    for (i = n-1 ; i >= 0 ; i--)
	        if (str.charAt(i) == '1')
	            break;
	 
	    // If there exists no '1' concat 1 at the
	    // starting of string
	    if (i == 0)
	        return "1" + str;
	 
	    // Continue traversal after the position of
	    // first '1'
	    for (int k = i-1 ; k >= 0; k--)
	    {
	        //Just flip the values
	        if (str.charAt(k) == '1')
	            str.replace(k, k+1, "0");
	        else
	        	str.replace(k, k+1, "1");
	    }
	 
	    // return the modified string
	    return str.toString();
	}
	
    // Driver method
    public static void main(String[] args) 
    {
    	StringBuffer str = new StringBuffer("00000101");
        System.out.println(findTwoscomplement(str));
    }
}


Output:

11111011

This article is contributed by Sahil Chhabra (akku). If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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