Count different numbers that can be generated such that there digits sum is equal to ‘n’

4

Given an positive integer n. Count the different numbers that can be generated using digits 1, 2, 3 and 4 such that digits sum is the number ‘n’. Here digit ‘4’ will be treated as ‘1’. For instance,
32 = 3 + 2 = 5
1341 = 1 + 3 + 1 + 1 = 6
441 = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3
Note: Answer the value in mod = 109+7

Input: 2
Output: 5
Explanation
There are only '5' numbers that can 
be made:
11 = 1 + 1 = 2
14 = 1 + 1 = 2
41 = 1 + 1 = 2
44 = 1 + 1 = 2
2  = 2

Input: 3
Output: 13
Explanation
There are only '13' numbers that can 
be made i.e., 111, 114, 141, 144, 411, 
414, 441, 444, 12, 21, 42, 24, 3.

The approach is to use Dynamic programming. The problem is same as coin change and Ways to write n as sum of two or more positive integers problems. The only difference is that, instead of iterating up-to ‘n’, iterate only from 1 to 3 as according to question, only 1, 2, 3 and 4 digits are allowed. But since ‘4’ can be replaced with ‘1’ therefore iterate through 1, 2 and 3 and double the count of ‘1’ for compensation of digit ‘4’.

// C++ program to count ways to write
// 'n' as sum of digits
#include<iostream>
using namespace std;

// Function to count 'num' as sum of
// digits(1, 2, 3, 4)
int countWays(int num)
{
    // Initialize dp[] array
    int dp[num+1];

    const int MOD = 1e9 + 7;
    // Base case
    dp[1] = 2;

    for(int i = 2; i <= num; ++i)
    {
        // Initialize the current dp[] 
        // array as '0'
        dp[i] = 0;

        for(int j = 1; j <= 3; ++j)
        {
            /* if i == j then there is only
               one way to write with element
               itself 'i' */
            if(i - j == 0)
               dp[i] += 1;

            /* If j == 1, then there exist
               two ways, one from '1' and
               other from '4' */
            else if (j == 1)
               dp[i] += dp[i-j] * 2;

            /* if i - j is positive then
               pick the element from 'i-j'
               element of dp[] array */
            else if(i - j > 0)
               dp[i] += dp[i-j];

        // Check for modulas
        if(dp[i] >= MOD)
            dp[i] %= MOD;
        }

    }

    // return the final answer
    return dp[num];
}

// Driver code
int main()
{
    int n = 3;
    cout << countWays(n);
    
    return 0;
}
Output 
13

Time complexity: O(n)
Auxiliary space: O(n)

Note: Asked in Directi coding round(2014 and 2017)

This article is contributed by Shubham Bansal 13. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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