Convert a BST to a Binary Tree such that sum of all greater keys is added to every key

2.2

Given a Binary Search Tree (BST), convert it to a Binary Tree such that every key of the original BST is changed to key plus sum of all greater keys in BST.

Examples:

Input: Root of following BST
              5
            /   \
           2     13

Output: The given BST is converted to following Binary Tree
              18
            /   \
          20     13

Source: Convert a BST

Solution: Do reverse Inoorder traversal. Keep track of the sum of nodes visited so far. Let this sum be sum. For every node currently being visited, first add the key of this node to sum, i.e. sum = sum + node->key. Then change the key of current node to sum, i.e., node->key = sum.
When a BST is being traversed in reverse Inorder, for every key currently being visited, all keys that are already visited are all greater keys.

C

// Program to change a BST to Binary Tree such that key of a node becomes
// original key plus sum of all greater keys in BST
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

/* A BST node has key, left child and right child */
struct node
{
    int key;
    struct node* left;
    struct node* right;
};

/* Helper function that allocates a new node with the given key and
   NULL left and right  pointers.*/
struct node* newNode(int key)
{
    struct node* node = (struct node*)malloc(sizeof(struct node));
    node->key = key;
    node->left = NULL;
    node->right = NULL;
    return (node);
}

// A recursive function that traverses the given BST in reverse inorder and
// for every key, adds all greater keys to it
void addGreaterUtil(struct node *root, int *sum_ptr)
{
    // Base Case
    if (root == NULL)
        return;

    // Recur for right subtree first so that sum of all greater
    // nodes is stored at sum_ptr
    addGreaterUtil(root->right, sum_ptr);

    // Update the value at sum_ptr
    *sum_ptr = *sum_ptr + root->key;

    // Update key of this node
    root->key = *sum_ptr;

    // Recur for left subtree so that the updated sum is added
    // to smaller nodes
    addGreaterUtil(root->left, sum_ptr);
}

// A wrapper over addGreaterUtil().  It initializes sum and calls
// addGreaterUtil() to recursivel upodate and use value of sum
void addGreater(struct node *root)
{
    int sum = 0;
    addGreaterUtil(root, &sum);
}

// A utility function to print inorder traversal of Binary Tree
void printInorder(struct node* node)
{
    if (node == NULL)
        return;
    printInorder(node->left);
    printf("%d ", node->key);
    printInorder(node->right);
}

// Driver program to test above function
int main()
{
    /* Create following BST
              5
            /   \
           2     13  */
    node *root = newNode(5);
    root->left = newNode(2);
    root->right = newNode(13);

    printf(" Inorder traversal of the given tree\n");
    printInorder(root);

    addGreater(root);

    printf("\n Inorder traversal of the modified tree\n");
    printInorder(root);

    return 0;
}

Java

// Java program to convert BST to binary tree such that sum of 
// all greater keys is added to every key

class Node {

    int data;
    Node left, right;

    Node(int d) {
        data = d;
        left = right = null;
    }
}

class Sum {

    int sum = 0;
}

class BinaryTree {

    static Node root;
    Sum summ = new Sum();

    // A recursive function that traverses the given BST in reverse inorder and
    // for every key, adds all greater keys to it
    void addGreaterUtil(Node node, Sum sum_ptr) {

        // Base Case
        if (node == null) {
            return;
        }

        // Recur for right subtree first so that sum of all greater
        // nodes is stored at sum_ptr
        addGreaterUtil(node.right, sum_ptr);

        // Update the value at sum_ptr
        sum_ptr.sum = sum_ptr.sum + node.data;

        // Update key of this node
        node.data = sum_ptr.sum;

        // Recur for left subtree so that the updated sum is added
        // to smaller nodes
        addGreaterUtil(node.left, sum_ptr);
    }

    // A wrapper over addGreaterUtil().  It initializes sum and calls
    // addGreaterUtil() to recursivel upodate and use value of sum
    Node addGreater(Node node) {
        addGreaterUtil(node, summ);
        return node;
    }

    // A utility function to print inorder traversal of Binary Tree
    void printInorder(Node node) {
        if (node == null) {
            return;
        }
        printInorder(node.left);
        System.out.print(node.data + " ");
        printInorder(node.right);
    }

    // Driver program to test the above functions
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        BinaryTree tree = new BinaryTree();
        tree.root = new Node(5);
        tree.root.left = new Node(2);
        tree.root.right = new Node(13);

        System.out.println("Inorder traversal of given tree ");
        tree.printInorder(root);
        Node node = tree.addGreater(root);
        System.out.println("");
        System.out.println("Inorder traversal of modified tree ");
        tree.printInorder(node);
    }
}

// This code has been contributed by Mayank Jaiswal


Output:
 Inorder traversal of the given tree
2 5 13
 Inorder traversal of the modified tree
20 18 13

Time Complexity: O(n) where n is the number of nodes in given Binary Search Tree.

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