# Boggle (Find all possible words in a board of characters) | Set 1

Given a dictionary, a method to do lookup in dictionary and a M x N board where every cell has one character. Find all possible words that can be formed by a sequence of adjacent characters. Note that we can move to any of 8 adjacent characters, but a word should not have multiple instances of same cell.

Example:

```Input: dictionary[] = {"GEEKS", "FOR", "QUIZ", "GO"};
boggle[][]   = {{'G','I','Z'},
{'U','E','K'},
{'Q','S','E'}};
isWord(str): returns true if str is present in dictionary
else false.

Output:  Following words of dictionary are present
GEEKS
QUIZ```

### We strongly recommend that you click here and practice it, before moving on to the solution.

The idea is to consider every character as a starting character and find all words starting with it. All words starting from a character can be found using Depth First Traversal. We do depth first traversal starting from every cell. We keep track of visited cells to make sure that a cell is considered only once in a word.

```// C++ program for Boggle game
#include<iostream>
#include<cstring>
using namespace std;

#define M 3
#define N 3

// Let the given dictionary be following
string dictionary[] = {"GEEKS", "FOR", "QUIZ", "GO"};
int n = sizeof(dictionary)/sizeof(dictionary[0]);

// A given function to check if a given string is present in
// dictionary. The implementation is naive for simplicity. As
// per the question dictionary is givem to us.
bool isWord(string &str)
{
// Linearly search all words
for (int i=0; i<n; i++)
if (str.compare(dictionary[i]) == 0)
return true;
return false;
}

// A recursive function to print all words present on boggle
void findWordsUtil(char boggle[M][N], bool visited[M][N], int i,
int j, string &str)
{
// Mark current cell as visited and append current character
// to str
visited[i][j] = true;
str = str + boggle[i][j];

// If str is present in dictionary, then print it
if (isWord(str))
cout << str << endl;

// Traverse 8 adjacent cells of boggle[i][j]
for (int row=i-1; row<=i+1 && row<M; row++)
for (int col=j-1; col<=j+1 && col<N; col++)
if (row>=0 && col>=0 && !visited[row][col])
findWordsUtil(boggle,visited, row, col, str);

// Erase current character from string and mark visited
// of current cell as false
str.erase(str.length()-1);
visited[i][j] = false;
}

// Prints all words present in dictionary.
void findWords(char boggle[M][N])
{
// Mark all characters as not visited
bool visited[M][N] = {{false}};

// Initialize current string
string str = "";

// Consider every character and look for all words
// starting with this character
for (int i=0; i<M; i++)
for (int j=0; j<N; j++)
findWordsUtil(boggle, visited, i, j, str);
}

// Driver program to test above function
int main()
{
char boggle[M][N] = {{'G','I','Z'},
{'U','E','K'},
{'Q','S','E'}};

cout << "Following words of dictionary are present\n";
findWords(boggle);
return 0;
}```

Output:

```Following words of dictionary are present
GEEKS
QUIZ ```

Note that the above solution may print same word multiple times. For example, if we add “SEEK” to dictionary, it is printed multiple times. To avoid this, we can use hashing to keep track of all printed words.

In below set 2, we have discussed Trie based optimized solution:
Boggle | Set 2 (Using Trie)

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